The effectiveness of the Aggression Replacement Training (ART) model to reduce the aggressive level of madrasah aliyah students

Ali Murtadho*  -  Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang, Indonesia
Syed Muzaffar Hussain  -  The Woman University Multan, Pakistan
Raden Azamry Raden Perhan  -  School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy, College of Arts and Sciences, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Ibrahim Bin Ahmad  -  School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy, College of Arts and Sciences, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

(*) Corresponding Author

Purpose: This study aims to prove the effectiveness of Aggression Placement Training ( ART ) in reducing the aggressiveness of students, especially in Islamic High School (Madrasah Aliyah).

Method: This research used a true-experimental design method with a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Samples were determined using random selection technique. The subjects were students of class XI Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Kendal. Aggressiveness data collection is using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ).

Results: The results of the study revealed that ART with an Islamic cultural and religious approach was effective in reducing the level of students' aggressiveness. The data show the level of aggressiveness of students in the experimental group was significantly lower than students in the control group. The theoretical means of 93,461 to 45.09 with a significance level of 0.00.

Implication: ART is suggested to be applied to overcome student’s aggression, therefore it is recommended for further researchers to use larger research subjects to have a more accurate conclusion; use ART for problems other than aggression such as low prosocial, low morale, and so on; conduct research in school settings where students are more heterogeneous, which is using ART to reduce the level of students aggression in senior high school or vocational high school.

Originally: This study used ART that had been adapted to the conditions of the Indonesian people, especially those who were Muslim. The training related to skill streaming, anger control training (ACT), and moral reasoning had an Islamic nuance.


Tujuan - Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan efektifitas Pelatihan Penempatan Agresi ( ART ) dalam mengurangi agresivitas siswa khususnya di Madrasah Aliyah .

Metode - Penelitian ini menggunakan metode true-experimental design dengan rancangan randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Sampel ditentukan dengan teknik pemilihan acak. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas XI Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Kendal. Pengumpulan data agresivitas menggunakan Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ).

Hasil - Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa ART dengan pendekatan budaya dan agama Islam efektif dalam menurunkan tingkat agresivitas siswa. Data menunjukkan tingkat agresivitas siswa pada kelompok eksperimen secara signifikan lebih rendah dibandingkan siswa pada kelompok kontrol. Rerata teoritis sebesar 93,461 sampai dengan 45,09 dengan taraf signifikansi 0,00.

Implikasi - ART disarankan untuk diterapkan untuk mengatasi agresi siswa, oleh karena itu disarankan bagi peneliti selanjutnya untuk menggunakan subjek penelitian yang lebih besar untuk mendapatkan kesimpulan yang lebih akurat; menggunakan ART untuk masalah selain agresi seperti prososial rendah, moral rendah, dan sebagainya; melakukan penelitian di lingkungan sekolah yang siswanya lebih heterogen, yaitu penggunaan ART untuk mengurangi tingkat agresi siswa di sekolah menengah atas atau sekolah menengah kejuruan.

Orisinalitas -  Penelitian ini menggunakan ART yang sudah disesuaikan dengan kondisi masyarakat Indonesia, khususnya yang beragama Islam. Pelatihan terkait skill streaming, pelatihan pengendalian amarah (ACT), dan penalaran moral bernuansa islami.

Keywords: Agresivitas; Agression Replacement Training (ART); madrasah aliyah student; siswa madrasah aliyah

  1. Allen, JJ &Anderson, CA (2017). Aggression and Violence: Definitions and Distinctions. The Wiley Handbook of Violence and Aggression, Peter Sturmey (Editor-in-Chief). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. DOI: 10.1002/9781119057574.whbva001
  2. Amendola, AM & Oliver, RW (2003). LSCI and Aggression Replacement Training: A Multi-modal Approach. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 12(3): 181-185.
  3. Amendola, MA & Oliver, RW (2009). LSCI and Aggression Replacement Training: A Multimodal Approach. Journal of Child and Youth Care Work : 10-17.
  4. Beck, R. & Fernandez, E. (1998). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(1): 77-84 .
  5. Brännström , L., Kaunitz , C., & Andershed , AK, (2016). Aggression Replacement Training (ART) for reducing antisocial behavior in adolescents and adults: a systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior . February 2016 27:30-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.02.006 .
  6. Bukhori, B. (2008). Remembrance of Al-Asma' Al-Husna The Solution to the Problem of Adolescent Aggression . Semarang: Syiar Media Publishing.
  7. Bushman, B.J. and Huesmann, L.R. (2010) Aggression. In: Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T. and Lindzey, G., Eds., Handbook of Social Psychology, 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 833-863.
  8. Buss, AH & Perry, M. (1992). The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 63(3): 452-459.
  9. Cobb, B., Sample, PL, Alwell, M. & Johns NR (2006). Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions, Dropout, and Youth with Disabilities: A Systematic Review. Journal of Remedial and Special Education, 27(5): 259-275.
  10. Cornish, JAE, Schreier, BA, Nadkarni, LI, Metzger, LH, & Rodolfa, ER (2010). Handbook of Multicultural Counseling Competencies . Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  11. Creswell, JW (2005). Educational Research. Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (2nd ed .). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  12. Denson, TF, Capper, MM, Oaten, M., Friese, M. & Schofield, TP (2011). Self-Control Training Decreases Aggression in Response to Provocation in Aggressive Individuals. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(2): 252-256 .
  13. Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia (1999). Al_Qur'an and its translation . Jakarta: Ministry of Religion RI
  14. DeWall, CN, Baumeister, RF, Schurtz, DR & Gailliot, MT (2010). Acting on Limited Resources: The Interactive Effects of Self-Regulatory Depletion and Individual Differences. Hoyle, Rick H.(Eds.). Handbook of Personality and Self-regulation. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  15. DeWall, CN, Baumeister, RF, Stillman, TF & Gailliot, MT (2007). Violence Restrained : Effects of Self Regulation Its Depletion on Aggression. Journal of Social Psychology , 43(2): 62-76.
  16. Estévez, E., Jiménez, TI &Moreno, D. (2018). Aggressive Behavior in Adolescence as a Predictor of Personal, Family, and School Adjustment Problems. Psychothema , Vol. 30, No. 1, 66-73 doi:10.7334/psicotema2016.294.
  17. Fraenkel, JR & Wallen, NE (2006). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (6 th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
  18. Furlong, MJ, & Smith, DC (Eds.). (1994). Anger, hostility, and aggression: Assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies for youth. Clinical Psychology Publishing Co.
  19. Goldstein, AP (1994). Aggression Replacement Training: Curriculum and Evaluation. Journal of Simulation & Gaming , 25(1): 102-120.
  20. Goldstein, AP & Glick, B. (1996). Aggression Replacement Training: Methods and Outcomes. In CR Hollin & K. Howells (Eds.), Clinical Approaches to Working with Young Offenders . Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  21. Goldstein, AP, Glick, B. & Gibbs, JC 1998. Aggression Replacement Training: A Comprehensive Intervention for Aggressive Youth (Revised Edition). Illinois, USA: Research Press.
  22. Goldstein, AP, Nens´en, R., Daleflod B. & Kalt, M. (2004). New Perspectives on Aggression Replacement Training: Practice, Research, and Application, Sussex England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  23. Gundersen, K. & Berget, AM (2005). ART (Aggression Replacement Training): An Exciting Innovation for The Creation Of Social Skills.
  24. Gundersen, K. & Svartdal, F. (2006). Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome Evaluation of 11 Norwegian Student Projects . Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research , 50(1): 63-81.
  25. Hardoni, Y., Neherta, M., &Sarfika, R. (2019). Reducing Aggressive Behavior of Adolescent with Using the Aggression Replacement Training. Endurance Journal. Vol 4(3) October 2019 (488-495). DOI:
  26. Heppner, PP et al. (2008). Research Design in Counseling ( 3rd ed.). USA: Thompson and Brooks/Cole.
  27. Herdiana, D. (2010). Behavioral Cognitive Counseling for Drug Addiction Counselors . Dissertation (unpublished). Bandung: Indonesian University of Education.
  28. Hollin, CR (2003). Aggression Replacement Training: Putting Theory and Research to Work. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 12(3): 132-135.
  29. Hosley, C. (2005). Aggression Replacement Training: Uniting Networks for Youth Evaluation Highlights 2003-04. Saint Paul, MN: Wilder Research Center.
  30. Komisi Perlindungan Anak Indonesia. (2020). Update data infografis kpai – per 31-08-2020. Accessed: March 5,2022.
  31. Isaac, S. &Michael, WB 1984. Handbook in Research and Evaluation. A Collection of Principles, Methods, and Strategies Useful in Planning, Design, and Evaluation and Behavioral Sciences . San Diego, California: Edits Publishers.
  32. Johnson , JG, Cohen, P., Smailes , EM, Kasen , S., & Brook , JS (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science , 2002 Mar 29; ;295(5564):2468-71. DOI: 10.1126/science.1062929
  33. - 31/08/2018. Vocational Student Brawl in Bekasi, 1 Dead to Revenge Action . .
  34. Koposov, R., Gundersen, KK , & Svartdal, F. (2014). Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among Children from North-West Russia. The International Journal of Emotional Psychology . Volumes 6(1):14-24.
  35. Leff, SS & Crick, NR 2010. Interventions for Relational Aggression: Innovative Programming and Next Steps in Research and Practice. Journal of School Psychology Review . 39(4): 504-521.
  36. Leon, AG, Reyes GA, Vila, J., Perez, N., Robles, H. & Ramos, MM (2002). The Aggression Questionnaire: A Validation Study in Student Samples. The Journal of Psychology, 5(1): 45-53.
  37. 30/12/2019. KPAI: Cases of Violence in Schools are Mostly Perpetrated by Teachers. .
  38. Meepien, D., Iamsupasit, S. & Suttiwan, P. (2010). Effects Of Self-control Training To Reduce Aggressive Behaviors of Famale Adolescent Offenders In Ban Pranee Juvenile Vocational Training Center. Journal of Health Res , 24(1):35-38 .
  39. National 30-12-2019. Child Violence in the Education Sector Throughout 2019. .
  40. Neto, AAL (2005). Bullying: Aggressive Behavior among Students. Journal of Pediatrics. 21(5): 164-173.
  41. Nugent, WR & Ely, G. (2010). The Effects of Aggression Replacement Training on Periodicities in Antisocial Behavior in a Short-Term Shelter for Adolescents: ART showed significant reductions in anger problems and verbal aggression. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research , 1(3): 140-158.
  42. Pedersen, WC, Denson, TF, Goss, RJ, Vasquez, EA, Kelly, NJ & Miller, N. (2011). The Impact of Rumination on Aggressive Thought, Feelings, Arousal, and Behavior. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50(1): 281-301.
  43. Pedersen, PB, Draguns, JG, Lonner, WJ, & Trimble, JE (Eds.). (2002). Counseling Across Culture . Thousand, Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
  44. Reddy, LA, & Goldstein, AP (2001). Aggression Replacement Training: A multimodal intervention for aggressive adolescents. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 18 (3), 47–62.
  45. Salkind, NJ & Rasmussen, K. (Eds.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. Los Angeles: Sage Pub.
  46. Tilaar, HAR (2002). Education, Culture, and Indonesian Civil Society National Education Reform Strategy . Bandung: Rosdakarya Youth.
  47. Vasquez, EA, Denson, TF, Pedersen, WC, Stenstrom, DM & Miller, N. (2005). The Moderating Effect of Trigger Intensity on Triggered Displaced Aggression. Journal of experimental Social Psychology. 41(1): 61-67.
  48. Vohs, KD & Baumeister, RF (2011). Handbook of Self Regulation: Research, Theory, and Application. 2nd Edition . New York: Guilford Press.
  49. Vohs, KD, Glass, BD, Maddox, WT & Markman, AB ( 2011). Ego Depletion Is Not Just Fatigue: Evidence from a Total Sleep Deprivation Experiment. Journal of Social Psychological and Personality Science 2(2): 166-173.
  50. Wilson, SJ & Lipsey, MW (2005). The Effectiveness of School-Based Violence Prevention Programs for Reducing Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior . Revised Report for the National Institute of Justice School Violence Prevention Research Planning Meeting May 2005. US Department of Justice.

Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Advanced Guidance and Counseling
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
View My Stats