Produksi Biofuel Berbantuan Ultrasonik dari Minyak Kelapa Terkatalisis Ca/γ-Al2O3 dan K/γ-Al2O3

Eko Supriadi*  -  Politeknik ATI Padang, Indonesia
Rahmat Basuki    -  Universitas Pertahanan RI, Indonesia
Danawati Hadi Prajitno  -  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia
Mahfud Mahfud  -  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia

(*) Corresponding Author

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan doping Kalium (K) dan Kalsium (Ca) pada support γ-Al2O3 dalam produksi biofuel yang berbentuk fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) melalui reaksi transesterifikasi minyak kelapa berbantuan ultrasonik. Reaksi dilakukan dalam tipe reaktor batch dengan perbandingan mol minyak kelapa:etanol = 1:9, dan variasi konsentrasi berat katalis untuk masing-masing katalis K/γ-Al23 dan Ca/γ-Al2O3 terhadap minyak kelapa (0,5%; 1,0%; 1,5%; 2% dan 2,5%), waktu reaksi (30, 60, 90, 120 dan 150 detik), dan frekuensi ultrasonik (20 dan 40 KHz). Keberhasilan doping ditunjukkan pada hasil karakterisasi K/g-Al2O3 ­dan Ca/g-Al2O3 menggunakan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) yang menghasilkan puncak 2θ karakteristik K (29,70° dan 32,65°) dan Ca (25,35°, 26,77°, dan 27,17°) pada support g-Al2O3 (37,66°, 45,82° dan 67,22°). Karakterisasi menggunakan Surface Area Analyzer (SAA) menunjukkan bahwa katalis K/g-Al2O3 memiliki luas permukaan yang lebih kecil (34,03 m2/g) dibanding Ca/g-Al2O3 (83,77 m2/g), namun diameter pori yang lebih besar (66,12 Å) dibanding Ca/g-Al2O3 (35,22 Å). Katalis K/g-Al2O3 menghasilkan yield FAME yang lebih besar (93,19%) dibanding Ca/γ-Al2O3 (29,76%) pada konsentrasi katalis 2,5%, waktu reaksi 150 detik dan frekuensi ultrasonik 40 kHz. Kualitas FAME terkatalisis K/g-Al2O3 yang dihasilkan memenuhi empat parameter uji: densitas, viskositas kinematic, titik nyala, dan titik tuang sesuai dengan standar SNI 04-7182-2006.

Keywords : Biofuel; Katalis K/γ-Al2O3 dan Ca/γ-Al2O3; Minyak kelapa; FAME; Ultrasonik

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