Rereading Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: His Islam, Marriage and Indo-European Descents in the Early Twentieth-Century Priangan

Jajang A Rohmana

Abstract


This study focuses on a controversial issue about Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje’s family that was left in the Dutch East Indies in the early twentieth century. The issue sparked a debate among scholars in the 1980s. The debate was concerned with the Dutch government's denial of Hurgronje’s marriage to an Indigenous woman as it was intended to maintain his good reputation. As a matter of fact, the colonial government forbids the marriage of European people with Indigenous women because it would tarnish their status and make it difficult in their careers. This study is meant as a follow-up of van Koningsveld's findings about Hurgronje’s wife and children in Priangan. Here the writer uses a historical analysis of the letters written by Hasan Mustapa to Hurgronje (Cod. Or. 8952). He argues that Hurgronje's history needs to be read in his position as a colonial official who may be worried about rules set by the colonial government. This study shows that Hurgronje cannot be considered completely irresponsible to his Indo-European family in the Dutch East Indies. In fact, he continued to monitor the condition of his family through regular correspondence with Hasan Mustapa, his close friend in the Dutch East Indies. This study is important in a sense that it is expected to be able to rectify the confusion over the issue of Hurgronje's morality towards his family. It offers another perspective of the history of colonialism dealing with interracial relation between Indigenous women, and their offspring, and European men amid the rise of the issue of Nyai and concubinage in the Dutch East Indies.

Keywords


Hasan Mustapa; history; indigenous; letters; Snouck Hurgronje

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ali, Mufti. 2004. “A Study of Hasan Mustafa’s Fatwa: It Is Incumbent upon the Indonesian Muslims to Be Loyal to the Dutch East Indies Government.” Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 52 (2): 67–84.

Baay, Reggie. 2010. Nyai & Pergundikan Di Hindia Belanda (Nyai & Concubinage in the Dutch East Indies). Edited by Siti Hertini Adiwoso. Depok: Komunitas Bambu.

Benda, Harry J. 1958. “Christiaan Snouck and the Foundations of the Islamic Dutch Policy in Indonesia.” The Journal of Modern History 30 (4): 338–47.

Carvalho, Christina. 2010. “Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Biography and Perception.” Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Gobee, E. and Adriaanse, C. 1936. “Pengantar (Introduction).” In Nasihat-Nasihat C. Snouck Hurgronje Semasa Kepegawaiannya Kepada Pemerintah Hindia Belanda 1889-1936, edited by C. Gobee, E. and Adriaanse, 1991st ed. Jakarta: INIS.

Haasse, Hella S. 2005. Sang Juragan Teh (Heren van de Thee, the Owner of Tea Company). Edited by Indira Ismail. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Hellwig, Tineke. 2001. “Indonesia and the Malay World Asian Women in the Lives of Dutch Tea Planters : Two Narratives from West Java.” Indonesia and the Malay World 29 (85): 161–79. doi:10.1080/13639810120102049.

Hurgronje, C. Snouck. 1880. Het Mekkaansche Feest. Leiden: Brill.

———. 1902. Nota van Wenken Die Bij de Aanrakingen Met Hoofden En Bevolking van Het Gajoland Te Behartigen Zullen Zijn. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij.

———. 1906. The Achehnese. Edited by translated by A.W.S. O’Sullivan. Vol. 2. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

———. 1989. Parayaan Mekah (The Mecca Festivals). Edited by Wiwin Triwinarti. Beck, H.L.; Kaptein, N.J.G.; Soeriawidjaja-Roring, Ny. P.A. Iskandar.; Wahyu. Jakarta: INIS.

———. 2007. Mekka in the Latter Part of the 19th Century. Edited by translated by J.H. Monahan with an introduction by Jan Just Witkam. Leiden: Brill.

Jahroni, Jajang. 1999. “The Life and Mystical Thought of Haji Hasan Mustafa (1852-1930).” Leiden University.

———. 2012. “Interview with Jajang Jahroni, a Researcher of Hasan Haji Mustapa, in Office PPIM UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, on Saturday, September 3rd, 2012, at 09:00.”

Kartini, Tini. 1985. “Biografi Dan Karya Pujangga Haji Hasan Mustapa (A Biography and Works of A Sundanese Poet, Haji Hasan Mustapa).” Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1988. “Surat Dari Wassenaar (the Letters from Wassenaar).” In Islam Dan Keturunan Arab Dalam Pemberontakan Melawan Belanda (Islam and Arab Descendants in the Revolt Against the Netherlands), edited by Hamid Algadri, 264–69. Bandung: Mizan.

Koningsveld, P.Sj. van. 1983. “Raden Jusuf Di Bandung Mengakhiri Kebungkamannya Sekitar Penikahan-Pernikahan Ayahnya, Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (Jusuf Raden Bandung Ending His Silence about the Marriage-Marriage Her Father, Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje).” Kompas, February.

———. 1989. Snouck Hurgronje Dan Islam, Delapan Karangan Tentang Hidup Dan Karya Seorang Orientalis Zaman Kolonial (Snouck and Islam, Eight Essays on Life and Work A Period Orientalist Kolonial). Bandung: Girimukti Pasaka.

Kurnia, Atep. 2017. “Raratan Kalipah Apo (The Story of Kalipah Apo).” Pikiran Rakyat, February.

Moestapa, Haji Hasan. 1911a. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, April 15, 1911.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1911b. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, February 23, 1911.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1911c. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, January 1, 1911.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1912a. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, January 27, 1912.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1912b. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, March 29, 1912.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1913a. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, October 14, 1913.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1913b. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, November 4, 1913 (Sic!).” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1915. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, October 12, 1915.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1920. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, March 9, 1920.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1923a. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, August 9, 1923.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

———. 1923b. “Arabic Letters from Bandung (Correspondence with Snouck Hurgronje), 1911-1923, Cod. Or. 8952, February 10, 1923.” Leiden: UB Leiden University.

Rohmana, Jajang A. 2012. “Sundanese Sufi Literature and Local Islamic Identity: A Contribution of Haji Hasan Mustapa’s Dangding.” Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies 50 (1): 303–27.

———. 2015. “A Sundanese Story of Hajj in the Colonial Period: Haji Hasan Mustapa’s Dangding on Pilgrimage to Mecca.” Heritage of Nusantara 4 (2): 273–312.

———. 2016. “Persahabatan Penjajah Dan Bangsa Jajahan Di Hindia Belanda: C. Snouck Hurgronje Dan Haji Hasan Mustapa (the Friendship between Invaders and Its Colonies in the Dutch East Indies: C. Snouck Hurgronje and Haji Hasan Mustapa).” Afkaruna 12 (2): 144–68. doi:10.18196/AIIJIS.2016.0060.144-168.

Sabiq, Sayyid. n.d. Fiqh Al-Sunnah (Islamic Jurisprudence of Muhammad’s Tradition). Vol. 2. Kairo: Al-Fath li I’lam al-‘Arabi.

Said, Edward. 1994. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage Book.

Tempo Team. 2011. “Anak Cucu Snouck Di Indonesia (Snouck’s Children and Grandchildren in Indonesia).” In Daud Beureueh, Pejuang Kemerdekaan Yang Memberontak (Daud Beureueh, the Rebel Freedom Fighters), edited by Tim Tempo. Jakarta: KPG.

“Universteitbibliotheek Leiden.” 2011. https://socrates.leidenuniv.nl.

Witkam, Jan Just. 2007. “Introduction.” In Mekka in the Latter Part of the 19th Century, edited by J.H. Monahan (Trans.). Leiden: Brill.

———. 2012. “Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje.” In Orientalist Writers, Dictionary of Literary Biography, edited by Dwayne A. Fitzpatrick, Coeli. & Tunstall, 366th ed. Detroit: Gale.

Wormser, J.A. 1890. “Wit Indie.” De Standaard.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21580/ws.26.1.2148

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by

Journal Terindex di DOAJ Journal Terindex di EBSCO Journal Terindex di Crossref Journal Terindex di Google Scholar Journal Terindex di Academia Journal Terindex di citefactor Journal Terindex di citeulike Journal Terindex di Base Journal Terindex di Portal Garuda Journal Terindex di Moraref Journal Terindex di Sinta Journal Terindex di onesearch

 


Copyright © 2017 Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan, ISSN: 0852-7172 (p) 2461-064X (e)

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
View My Stats