Islamic Sharia and Non-Muslim Citizens in Kanunname During Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire

Meirison Alizar, Qasim Muhammadi

Abstract


The tolerant spirit of Islam has inspired Ottoman rulers to adopt policies relating to non-Muslim citizens. The leadership crisis in the Ottoman Empire and the Western interests through capitulation have changed judicial system in the empire, including the system for non-Muslims that allows them to conduct their own judiciary and provide absolute freedom of religious matters. Tanzimāt, which is expected to bring improvements to the legislation system in Ottoman Empire, has marginalized Islamic law which is only enforced in aḥwāl al-shakhṣiyyah. Sultan Abdul Hamid II tried to maintain Islamic law by codifying Western European style. Some legal codifications contain qawāid fiqhiyyah (principles of Islamic law) which are sourced from the books of the Hanafi School of jurisprudence, and some others adopt Western laws by taking a few opinions of Islamic jurisprudence. This study analyzed various literatures related to policies towards non-Muslim citizens in the Ottoman era. The study uses descriptive and qualitative methods with a content analysis approach. Broadly speaking, this study found that the Ottoman Empire had given good treatment to non-Muslim citizens. The non-Muslim citizens get various facilities from the State, including the establishment of special institutions that handle their own affairs, although at the same time they have been used by Western countries to support their interests in Ottoman Empire.


Keywords


Islamic Sharia; Kanunname; Non-Muslims; Otto-man Empire; Sultan Abdul Hamid II

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah, Izzudin. 1973. Qanun al-Duwali al-Khaṣ. First. Vol. 2. 1 Kairo: Dar al-Wafa.

Ágoston, Gábor, and Bruce Alan Masters, 2009. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts on File Library of World History.

Ahmad, F. 2000. “Ottoman Perceptions Of The Capitulations 1800-1914.” Journal of Islamic Studies 11 (1): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/11.1.1.

Aviv, Efrat. 2016. “Millet System in the Ottoman Empire.” Oxford Bibliographies. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0231.

Belge, Murat. 1985. Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye Ansiklopedisi. Vol. 12. 6 vols. Istanbul: İletişim.

Braude, Benjamin, and Bernard Lewis, 1982. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers.

Aykut, Ebru. 2017. “Judicial Reforms, Sharia Law, and the Death Penalty in the Late Ottoman Empire.” Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association 4 (1): 7. https://doi.org/10.2979/jottturstuass.4.1.02.

Farid Bek Al-Muhami, Muhammad. 2009. Tārikh al-Dawla al-‘Aliyya al-’Uthmaniyya. Beirut: Dar al-Nafa’is.

Fattal, Antoine. 1995. Le Statut Légal des Non-Musulmans en Pays d’Islam. 2. Ed. Recherches de la Faculté des lettres et de sciences humaines Série 3, Orient chrétien 10. Beyrouth: Dar el-Machreq.

Finkel, Caroline. 2007. Osman’s Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923. New York: Basic Books.

Haqi, Ihsan. 1988. Daulah Uthmaniyah wa ‘Alaqatuha al-Kharijiyyah. Beirut: Dar an-Nafais.

Ihsan Oglu, Akmaluddin, and Sa’dawi, Salih. 2011. Daulah Utsmaniyah: Tarikh wa Hadharah. Istanbul: Markaz al-Abhats li Tarikh wa Funun wa Tsaqafah Islamiyah.

İhsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin, Ṣāliḥ Saʿdāwī, and Akmāl-ad-Dīn Iḥsānūġlū. 1999. ad-Daula wa-’l-muǧtamaʿ wa-’l-iqtiṣād. ad-Daula al-ʿuṯmānīya, tārīḫ wa-ḥaḍāra / išrāf wa-taqdīm Akmāl-ad-Dīn Iḥsānūġlī. Naqalahū ilā ’l-ʿarabīya Ṣāliḥ Saʿdāwī ; Muǧallad 1. Isṭanbūl: Markaz al-Abḥāṯ li-t-Tārīḫ wa-’l-Funūn wa-’ṯ-Ṯaqāfa.

Inalcik, Halil. 2013. Ottoman Empire the Classical Age 1300-1600. London: Phoenix Press.

Kazıcı, Ziya. 2009. Sultan II Abdulhamid ve dönemi Osmanlı Devleti. İstanbul: Kayıhan.

Mantran, Robert. 2003. Histoire de l’Empire ottoman. Paris: Fayard.

Mughal, Abdul Ghaffar, and Larbi Sadiki. 2017. “Shari‘ah Law and Capitulations Governing the Non-Muslim Foreign Merchants in the Ottoman Empire.” Sociology of Islam 5 (2–3): 138–60. https://doi.org/10.1163/22131418-00503006.

Muhammad Hamidullah. 1987. Majmu’ah al-Watsaiq al-Siyasa li al-’Ahdi an-Nabawi wa Khilāfah al-Rashidah. Bayrut: Dar al-Nafa’is.

Huda, Nurul and Ahmad Muti. 2002. Keuangan publik Islam: pendekatan Al-Kharaj (Imam Abu Yusuf). Bogor: Penerbit Ghalia Indonesia.

Qaradawi, Yusuf. 1992. Ghairu al-Muslimīn fī al-Mujtama’ al-Islāmiy. al-Qahirah: Maktabat Wahbah.

Quataert, Donald. 2005. The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. 2nd ed. New Approaches to European History. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shadiq Janbulat, Orhan. 2012. Qawānīn al-Dawlah al- ‘Uthmāniyyah wa Ṣillatuhā bi al-Madhhab al-Ḥanafiy.

Syahatah, Syafiq. 2016. Itijah Tasyri’iyah fi Qawanin Bilad al-Arabiyah. Vol. 2. 1 vols. Maktabah al-Wafa.

Taufiq Athar, Abdunasir. 2014. Ahkām Usrah Inda al-Masehiyin al-Misriyin wa Mada Tatbiquha fi Mahakim. Vol. 2. 1 vols. Kairo: Darul Amal.

Zarqa, Mustafa. 2001. Siyahgha as-Syar’iyah fi Ta’asuf fi Isti’mal al-Haq. Third. Vol. 2. 1 vols. Beirut: Maktabah Nailah.

Zuhaili, Muhammad. 1992. Tarīkh al-Qaḍā fī al-Islām. Beirut: Muasasah Risalah.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21580/ws.27.1.3543

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by

Journal Terindex di DOAJ Journal Terindex di EBSCO Journal Terindex di Crossref  Journal Terindex di Sinta Journal Terindex di Google Scholar Journal Terindex di Academia Journal Terindex di Mendeley  Journal Terindex di Leiden Journal Terindex di Base Journal Terindex di Garuda Journal Terindex di Moraref Journal Terindex di onesearch 

 


Copyright © 2019 Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan, ISSN: 0852-7172 (p) 2461-064X (e)

Published by Institute for Research and Community Services (LP2M), Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo No. 3-5 Semarang, Indonesia. Phone +6224 7601292 Email: walisongo@walisongo.ac.id

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
View My Stats