VERIFICATION OF THE HISAB EPHEMERIS SYSTEM AGAINST THE HIJRI CALENDAR LEAP YEAR PATTERN WITH CRITERIA IMKAN AL-RUKYAH MABIMS (Case Study in Kudus District)

Fika Afhamul Fuscha*  -  Institute for Science and Religion Study, Indonesia

(*) Corresponding Author

The hijri istilahi calendar has a 30-year cycle system, wherein 30 years there are 11 leap years and 19 basithoh years. In history, there are 4 kinds of variants in the placement of the leap year. This research aims to determine the leap year pattern of Kudus district in 30 years and to verify which patterns are close to the 4 kinds of variants. This study uses the Library Research method using a descriptive verification approach. This approach provides a sample of the number of days per month for 30 years using the Ephemeris reckoning system by considering the possibility of seeing the new moon based on the criteria of Imkan al-Rukyah MABIMS. If the hilal meets the MABIMS criteria, then the number of days is 29, but if not, then the number of days will be 30. Then, the number of days each month is accumulated annually and is used to verify the number of days each year on the hijriah istilahi calendar. Based on the analysis of the initial month data at the Kudus district headquarters for a period of 30 years, it turns out that in the period of 1411 H to 1440 H, the spread pattern of leap years is closer to pattern IV. There are 5 years whose leap is the same as the IV pattern, namely 2, 8, 16, 24, and 30.

Keywords : Hisab Ephemeris, Hijriah Istilahi, Imkan Al-Rukyah MABIMS

  1. Al-Juzairi. “Al-Fiqhu Ala Al-Madzahibi Al-Arba’ah.” In J.I. Beirut: Dar Kutub al-Ilmiah, 2003.
  2. An-Nawawi, Imam Abu Zakariya Muhyiddin bin Syarof. “Al-Majmu’ Syarh Al-Muhadzab.” In J. VI. Beirut: Dar Kutub al-Ilmiah, 1996.
  3. Anugraha, Rinto. Mekanika Benda Langit. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2012.
  4. Anwar, Nur. “Belajar Lebih Dari Matematikawan Muslim.” Jurnal Itqan Vol. 8, no. 2 (2017).
  5. Anwar, Syamsul. Hisab Awal Bulan Kamariah. Yogyakarta: Suara Muhammadiah, 2009.
  6. Az-Zuhaili, Wahbah. “Al-Fiqhu Al-Islami Wa Adillatuhu.” In J. II. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1989.
  7. Azhari, Susiknan. Ensiklopedia Hisab Rukyat. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2005.
  8. Bagheri, Mohammad. “Kushyar Ibn Labban’s Scientific Legacy.” In Astronomical Heritage of the Middle East, edited by Sona V Farmanyan, Areg M Mickaelian, J McKim Malville, and Mohammad Bagheri, Vol. 520. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 2019.
  9. Bashori, Muh. Hadi. Penanggalan Islam: Peradaban Tanpa Penanggalan, Inikah Pilihan Kita? Jakarta: PT Elex Media Komputindo, 2013.
  10. Djamaluddin, Thomas. Astronomi Memberi Solusi Penyatuan Umat. Bandung: LAPAN, 2011.
  11. Echols, John M. Kamus Inggris Indonesia. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia, 2005.
  12. Gent, Robert Harry Van. “The Arithmetical or Tabular Islamic Calender.” Accessed November 11, 2020. https://webspace.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/islam/islam_tabcal_variants.htm.
  13. Hidayat, Ehsan. “Penentuan Jumlah Gerhana Matahari Dengan Argumen Lintang Bulan Dan Teori Aritmatika.” MIYAH: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol. 16, no. No. 1 (2020).
  14. Inshafi, Zul Amri Fathinul. “Aplikasi Data Ephemeris Matahari Dan Bulan Berdasarkan Perhitungan Jean Meeus Pada Smartphone Android.” Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo, 2016.
  15. Jayusman, J. “Wacana Takwim Urfi Dalam Penanggalan Islam.” Jurnal Hukum Islam IAIN Pekalongan 7, no. 2 (2009).
  16. Khazin, Muhyiddin. Ilmu Falak: Dalam Teori Dan Praktik. Yogyakarta: Buana Pustaka, 2008.
  17. Luminet, Jean Pierre. “Ulugh Beg, Prince of Stars.” ArXiv E-Prints, April 2018.
  18. Ma’rufin Sudibyo. Variasi Lokal Dalam Visibilitas Hilal: Observasi Hilal Di Indonesia Pada 2007-2009. Yogyakarta: Lembaga Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Ilmu Falak RHI, 2012.
  19. Meeus, Jean. Astronomical Alghorithms. Virginia: Willmann-Bell, Inc., 1998.
  20. ———. Mathematical Astronomy Morsels. Virginia: Willmann-Bell, Inc., 1997.
  21. Mulyadi, Achmad. “Pemikiran Al-Khawarizmi Dalam Meletakkan Dasar Pengembangan Ilmu Astronomi Islam Pendahuluan Selama Kurang Lebih 14 Abad , Peradaban Islam Dapat Berjaya Di Seantero.” International Journal Ihya ’Ulum Al-Din Vol. 20, no. 1 (2018).
  22. Munawwir, Ahmad Warson. Al-Munawwir: Kamus Arab Indonesia. Surabaya: Pustaka Progesif, 1997.
  23. Muslifah, Siti. “Upaya Menyikapi Perbedaan Penentuan Awal Bulan Qamariyah Di Indonesia.” Azimuth: Journal of Islamic Astronomy Vol. 1, no. 1 (2020).
  24. Musonnif, Ahmad. “Pemikiran Shi’ah Ismailiyah Tentang Kalender Islam (Tinjauan Atas Sistem Kalender Hisabi Dinasti Fatimiyah).” Kontemplasi: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin Vol 4, no. 2 (2016).
  25. Nasir, M Rifa Jamaludin. “Hisab Aritmatik (Kajian Epistemologi Atas Pemikiran Ma’şum Bin Ali Dalam Kitab Bad i’ah Al-Mitsal).” AL-AFAQ: Jurnal Ilmu Falak Dan Astronomi Vol. 1, no. 1 (2019).
  26. Nasution, Hasnah. “Pemikiran Kalam Syi’ah Imamiyah.” Analytica Islamica Vol. 4, no. 1 (2015).
  27. Nordin, Anis Nurashikin. “Regenerating Muslim Inventors – The Present Future.” ’Ulum Islamiyyah: The Malaysian Journal of Islamic Sciences Vol. 31 (2020).
  28. Rashed, M.G., M.G. Moklof, and Alaa E. Hamza. “Investigation the Arithmetical or Tabular Islamic Calendar.” NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics 7, no. 1 (2018).
  29. Rausi, Fathor. “Astrolabe; Instrumen Astronomi Klasik Dan Kontribusinya Dalam Hisab Rukyat.” ElFalaky: Jurnal Ilmu Falak Vol. 3, no. 2 (2019).
  30. RI, Yayasan Penyelenggara Penterjemah Mushaf Al-Quran Departemen Agama. Al-Qur’an Dan Terjemah Juz 1-Juz 30. Surabaya: Terbit Terang, 2002.
  31. Ridhallah, Alaik. “Sistem Penaggalan Baha’i Persfektif Astronomi.” AL-AFAQ: Jurnal Ilmu Falak Dan Astronomi Vol. 2, no. 1 (2020).
  32. Riza, Muhammad Himmatur. “Kriteria Kalender Hijriyah Global Tunggal Turki 2016 Perspektif Tim Hisab Rukyat Kementrian Agama RI.” ElFalaky: Jurnal Ilmu Falak 2, no. 1 (2018).
  33. Rofiuddin, Ahmad Adib. “Dinamika Sosial Penentuan Awal Bulan Hijriah Di Indonesia.” Istinbath: Jurnal Hukum Dan Ekonomi Islam Vol. 18, no. 2 (2019).
  34. Sado, Arino Bemi. “Imkan Al-Rukyat MABIMS Solusi Penyeragaman Kalender Hijriyah.” Istinbath: Jurnal Hukum Islam Vol. 13, no. 1 (2014).
  35. SS, Noor Ahmad, and Abu Syaiful Mujab. Risalah Syamsul Hilal Juz I. Kudus: Madrasah Tasywiquth Thullab Salafiyah Kudus, n.d.
  36. Syarif, Muh. Rasywan. “Diskursus Perkembangan Formulasi Kalender Hijriah.” ElFalaky: Jurnal Ilmu Falak Vol. 2, no. 1 (2018).

Al-Hilal : Journal of Islamic Astronomy
Published by Fakultas Syari'ah dan Hukum UIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl Prof. Dr. Hamka Kampus III Ngaliyan Semarang 50185
Phone: +62 852-0124-1033
Website: https://fsh.walisongo.ac.id/
Email: alhilal@walisongo.ac.id

 
apps