Counter-Discourse on The Criticism of Ibn Rushd Toward al-Ghazali

Ahmad Hakim*    -  Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo, Semarang, Indonesia

(*) Corresponding Author
Al-Ghazali's intellectuality and capabilities have been recognized worldwide until he was nicknamed H{ujjatul Isla>m. Therefore, if there are people who refute his thinking in many ways, then the refutation needs to be investigated further. In this case, Ibn Rushd rejected and blamed al-Ghazali's criticism of the peculiarities of the philosophers on three things, namely the nature’s immortality, God's knowledge, and physical resurrection. This study aims to find a clear position regarding the controversial discussion between Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazali. Both had different views on these three issues. This qualitative discussion with a critical hermeneutic approach presents various analyzes of the arguments of the two figures, especially concerning Ibn Rushd's criticism toward al-Ghazali. This study resulted in a conclusion that Ibn Rushd's criticism toward al-Ghazali can be said to still have gaps in his argumentation. When Ibn Rushd presented a proposition in the form of verses of the Qur'an, the verse he delivered supported al-Ghazali's opinion if analyzed in more depth, and was cross-checked with other verses.

Keywords : God's knowledge, nature’s immortality, and physical resurrection.

  1. Abu-Lughod, Lila, “The Romance of Resistance: Tracing Transformations of Power through Bedouin Women.” Journal American Ethnologist 17, no. 1 (1990)
  2. Al-‘Alawi, Jamaluddin, “Kata Pengantar” dalam Ibnu Rusyd, Al-Dharuri fi Usul fiqh aw Mukhtasar al-Mustashfa, Beirut: Dar al-Gharb al-Islamiy, 1994.
  3. Baharnejad, Zakrya & Sanobari, Narges, “A Study on Seyyed Jalaluddin Ashtiani`s Critics on Ghazali's Objections Regarding Knowledge of Particulars by God”, Journal Ontological Researches 8, no. 15 (2019)
  4. Bakker, Anton, Metodologi Penelitian Filsafat, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1989.
  5. Bilalov, Mustafa, “Ontological and Epistemological Discordsroots in Islam.” Journal The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences (EpSBS), (2019): 430-436. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.59.
  6. Bleicher, Josef, Contemporary Hermeneutics: Hermeneutics as Method, Philosophy, and Critique, London: Routledge 6 Kegan Paul, 1980.
  7. Daudy, Ahmad, Kuliah Filsafat Islam, Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1986.
  8. Fakhry, Majid, A History of Islamic Philosophy, New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
  9. Fauziah, Ruhyatul, “Kebangkitan Manusia di Akhirat menurut al-Ghazali dan Ibnu Rusyd”, Jurnal Aqlania 9, no. 2 (2018): 193-221. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.32678/aqlania.v9i02.2066.
  10. Fawait, Agus, “Rancang Bangun Pemikiran Ibn Rusyd dalam Pembelaan atas Fil-safat”, Jurnal Islamic Akademika 6, no. 1 (2019): 23-31. https://doi.org/ 10.230303/staiattaqwa.v6i1.73.
  11. Al-Ghazali, Tahafut al-Falasifah, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr al-Lubnani, 1993.
  12. Hamkah, Zainuddin, “Ibnu Rusyd: Pembelaan Terhadap Para Filosof”, Jurnal Ash-Shahabah 4, no. 1 (2018)
  13. Hidayat, Nurul, “Bantahan Ibnu Rusyd terhadap Kritik al-Ghazâlî Tentang Keqa-diman Alam.” Jurnal Ulumuna 11, no. 2 (2007): 373-388. https://doi.org/ 10.20414/ujis.v11i2.407.
  14. Hussein, Athal Ibrahim, “Philosophical Controversies between Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rushd.” International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change 11, no. 9 (2020)
  15. Al-Iraqi, M. ‘Athif, Al-Manhaj an-Naqdi fi Falsafah Ibn Rushd, (Kairo: Dar al-Ma’arif, 1980.
  16. Janssens, Jules,“Al-Ghazali’s Tahafut: Is It Really a Rejection of Ibn Sina’s Philosophy?.” Journal of Islamic Studies 12, no. 1, (2001)
  17. Al-Khadiri, Zaynab Mahmud, Atsar Ibnu Rusyd fi Falsafah al-Ashr al-Wustha, (Beirut: Dar al-Tanwir, 2007.
  18. Kirabaev, N.S. & Al-Janabi, M., “Prolegomena to metaphysics of al-Ghazali”, RUDN Journal of Philosophy Вестник РУДН, серия Философия, no. 4 (2016)
  19. Mahmud, Akilah, “Jejak Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Ibnu Rusyd dalam Perkembangan Teologi Islam.” Jurnal Sulesana 13, no. 2 (2019): 183-198.
  20. Muliati, “Al-Ghazali dan Kritiknya terhadap Filosof”, Jurnal Aqidah-Ta 2, no. 2, (2016): 77-86. https://doi.org/10.24252/aqidahta.v2i2.3436.
  21. Musa, Muhammad Yusuf, Baina al-Din wa al-Falsafah fi Ra’yi Ibni Rushd wa Falasifah al-‘Asr al-Wasith, Kairo: Dar al-Ma’arif, t.t.
  22. Al-Nabhani, Taqiyuddin, Al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Beirut: Dar al-Ummah, 2003.
  23. Nasution, Harun, Filsafat & Mistisisme dalam Islam, Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1990.
  24. Qardhawi, Yusuf, Berinteraksi dengan al-Qur'an, terj. Abd al-Hayyi, Jakarta: Gema In-sani Press, 2000.
  25. Al-Razi Fakhruddin, Muhammad, Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi,, (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1981.
  26. Renan, Ernest, Ibn Rushd wa al-Rushdiyyah, terj. Adel Zuaitir, (Kairo: Maktabah ath-Thaqafah al-Diniyyah, 2008.
  27. Rushd, Ibnu, Fasl al-Maqal fi Taqrir Ma Baina al-Hikmah wa al-Syari’ah min al-Ittisal, Beirut: Markaz al-Dirasat al-‘Arabiyyah, 1997.
  28. Rushd, Ibnu, Tahafut al-Tahafut, ed. Sulaiman Dunya, Kairo: Dar al-Ma’arif, 1974.
  29. Sina, Ibn, Al-Najat fi al-Hikmah al-Manthiqiyyah wa al-Thabi’iyyah wa al-Ilahiyyah, Ed. Majid Fakhri, Beirut: Dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, 1982.
  30. Sonhaji, Ahmad, Al-Ajurumiyyah, (Beirut: Dar al-Hifdi Salafiyyah, 2006.
  31. Al-Taftazani, Abu al-Wafa al-Ghanimi, Sufi dari Zaman ke Zaman: Suatu Pengantar tentang Tasawuf, terj. Ahmad Rofi’, Bandung: Pustaka, 2003.
  32. Tedy, Armin, “Kritik Ibnu Rusyd terhadap Tiga Kerancuan Berfikir al-Ghazali.” Jurnal El-Afkar 5, no. 1 (2016): 11-20. https://ejournal.iainbengkulu.ac.id/ in-dex.php/elafkar/article/view/1117.
  33. Terdiman, Richard, Discourse/Counter-discourse: The Theory of Symbolic Resistance in Nineteenth-Century France, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.
  34. Al-Thabathaba’I, Muhammad Husain, Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, Beirut: Muassasah al-A’lami: 1997
  35. Tim Penyusun, Ensiklopedi Islam, Jakarta: PT Ichtiar Baru van Hoeve, 2002.
  36. Wohlman, Avital, “Al-Ghazali, Averroës and the Interpretation of the Qur’an: Common Sense and Philosophy in Islam”, Journal of Qur'anic Studies 15, no. 1 (2013): 142-146. DOI: 10.3366/jqs.2013.0081.
  37. Yasin, Nawal Taha, “Ibn Rusyd Criticism to al-Ghazali Criticism As a Sample”, Journal Adab al-Basrah 68, (2014)

Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Theologia
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
 

JURNAL THEOLOGIA

FACULTY OF USHULUDDIN & HUMANIORA
State Islamic University of Walisongo
Semarang - Indonesia

 
                                                               
Web
Analytics
View My Stats
apps