Understanding Hadith: Exoteric and Esoteric Dimensions by al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmiżī, al-Ghazālī, and Ibn al-‘Arabī al-Mursī

Muhammad Akmaluddin*    -  UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, Indonesia

(*) Corresponding Author

The exoteric dimension is a systematic basis in looking for surface meaning of hadith. Whereas the esoteric dimension used to look for the unspeakable, the essential and the signal meaning. Understanding hadith meaning with both dimensions will explain the surface and deep meaning of hadith. By using qualitative approach, literary research and content analysis, this paper will discuss how the development of exoteric and esoteric dimensions in understanding hadith and both relationship. Each Islamic scholars has his own method when looking for the esoteric dimension in understanding hadith. Al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmiżī used proverbs (amāl), al-Ghazālī used consideration (i‘tibār), and Ibn al-'Arab Ibn al-‘Arabī used trainings (riyāāt) and struggles (mujāhadāt). Although using different terms, they agreed that the esoteric dimension must be based on the exoteric dimension. The detachment of the esoteric dimension from the exoteric dimension will cause the loss of the meaning foundation and will fall into iniyyah method.

Keywords: exoteric; esoteric; understanding of hadith; hadith; sufism

  1. Abū Lail, Muḥammad Maḥmūd. “Al-Siyāsah al-Syar‘iyyah Fī Taṣarrufāt al-Rasūl Ṣallā Allāh ‘alaihi Wa Sallama al-Māliyah Wa al-Iqtiṣādiyyah.” Ph.D., Jordan University, 2005.
  2. Akmaluddin, Muhammad. “Social and Cultural Relations in Islamic Law in Javanese Context: KH. Bisri Musthofa’s Thoughts on Qur’an and Hadith Issues.” Esensia: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin 21, no. 2 (October 31, 2020). https://doi.org/10.14421/esensia.v21i2.2355.
  3. ———. “The Epistemology of Sharḥ Hadith in Al-Andalus in the Second to the Third Century AH: A Book Study of Tafsîr Gharîb Almuwaṭṭa by ‘Abd Al-Malik Bin Ḥabîb.” Jurnal Ushuluddin 26, no. 2 (2018): 113–29. https://doi.org/10.24014/jush.v26i2.5374.
  4. Brockopp, Jonathan E. Muhammad’s Heirs: The Rise of Muslim Scholarly Communities, 622-950. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  5. Brown, Jonathan A. C. Hadith: Muhammad’s Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. Foundations of Islam. Oneworld Publications, 2009.
  6. Bukhārī, Muḥammad bin Ismā‘īl al-. Al-Jāmi‘ al-Musnad al-Ṣaḥīḥ al-Mukhtaṣar Min Umūr Rasūl Allāh Ṣallā Allāh ‘alaih Wa Sallam Wa Sunanih Wa Ayyāmih. Edited by Muḥammad bin Zuhair bin Nāṣir al-Nāsir. Beirut: Dār Ṭūq an-Najāh, 2001.
  7. Crone, Patricia, and Michael Cook. Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  8. Crone, Patricia, and Martin Hinds. God’s Caliph: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam. University of Cambridge Oriental Publications 37. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  9. Dimasyqī, ‘Umar bin Riḍā Kaḥḥālah al-. Mu‘jam al-Muallifīn. Beirut: Maktabah al-Muṡannā, n.d.
  10. Dīnawarī, ‘Abd Allāh bin Muslim bin Qutaibah al-. Ta’wīl Mukhtalif al-Ḥadīṡ. Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islāmī, 1999.
  11. Ghazālī, Muḥammad al-. Al-Sunnah al-Nabawiyyah Baina Ahl al-Fiqh Wa Ahl al-Ḥadīṡ. Kairo: Dār al-Syurūq, 1989.
  12. Ghazālī, Muḥammad bin Muḥammad al-. Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn. Beirut: Dār al-Ma‘rifah, n.d.
  13. Ghurāb, Maḥmūd Maḥmūd al-. Al-Fiqh ‘inda al-Syaikh al-Akbar Muḥyī al-Dīn Ibn al-‘Arabī. Maṭba‘ah Naḍr, 1993.
  14. ———. Raḥmah Min Al-Raḥmān Fī Tafsīr Wa Isyārāt al-Qur’ān Min Kalām al-Syaikh al-Akbar Muḥyī al-Dīn Ibn al-‘Arabī. Maṭba‘ah Naḍr, 1989.
  15. ———. Syarḥ Kalimāt Al-Ṣūfiyyah Wa al-Radd ‘alā Ibn Taimiyyah Min Kalām al-Syaikh al-Akbar Muḥyī al-Dīn Ibn al-‘Arabī. Maṭba‘ah Naḍr, 1993.
  16. Görke, Andreas, Harald Motzki, and Gregor Schoeler. “First Century Sources for the Life of Muhammad? A Debate.” Der Islam; Berlin 89, no. 1/2 (2012): 2–59.
  17. Grekov, Igor. “Psychology of the Exoteric: On the Specifics of Spiritual Work at the Initial Stage of Mastering Esoteric Knowledge and Experience.” E3S Web of Conferences 210 (2020): 19013. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202021019013.
  18. Harawī, al-Qāsim bin Sallām al-. Gharīb Al-Ḥadīṡ. Edited by Ḥusain Muḥammad Muḥammad Syaraf. Kairo: Al-Hai’ah al-‘Āmmah li Syu’ūn al-Maṭabi‘ al-Amīriyyah, 1984.
  19. Ḥasanī, Aḥmad bin Muḥammad Ibn ‘Ajībah al-. Al-Baḥr al-Madīd Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Majīd. Edited by A. ‘Abd Allāh al-Qurasyī Ruslān. Kairo: Dr. Ḥasan ‘Abbās Zakī, 1419.
  20. ———. “Al-Futūḥāt al-Quddūsiyyah Fī Syarḥ al-Muqaddimah al-Ājurūmiyyah.” Manuscript. Riyadh University, 1400.
  21. Ibn al-‘Arabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn Muḥammad bin ‘Alī. Al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyyah. Edited by Aḥmad Syams al-Dīn. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1999.
  22. ———. Al-Waṣāyā Li al-Syaikh al-Akbar. Edited by Lajnah al-Ta’līf wa al-Nasyr fī Dār al-Īmān. Damaskus: Dār al-Īmān, 1988.
  23. Isma’il, Muhammad Syuhudi. Hadis Nabi Yang Tekstual Dan Kontekstual: Telaah Memahami Ma’ani al-Hadits Tentang Ajaran Islam Yang Universal, Temporal, Dan Lokal. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 2009.
  24. Khalīfah, Muṣṭafā bin ‘Abd Allāh Ḥājjī. Kasyf Al-Ẓunūn ‘an Asāmī al-Kutub Wa al-Funūn. Baghdad: Maktabah al-Muṡannā, 1941.
  25. Kūhinī, ‘Abd al-Qādir bin Aḥmad al-. Khulāṣah Syarḥ Ibn ‘Ajībah ‘alā Matn al-Ājurūmiyyah Fī al-Taṣawwuf. Dār al-Ṭibā‘ah al-‘Āmirah, n.d.
  26. Maghribī, ‘Alī bin Abī Bakr Ibn Maimūn al-Qurasyī al-. “Naḥw Al-Qalb Syarḥ al-Ājurūmiyyah.” Manuscript. King Saud University, 1400.
  27. Maqqarī, Aḥmad bin Muḥammad al-. Nafḥ Al-Ṭīb Min Ghuṣn al-Andalus al-Raṭīb Wa Żikr Wazīrihā Lisān al-Dīn Bin al-Khaṭīb. Edited by Iḥsān ‘Abbās. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1997.
  28. Metcalf, Barbara D. “Living Hadith in the Tablighi Jama`at.” The Journal of Asian Studies 52, no. 3 (1993): 584–608. https://doi.org/10.2307/2058855.
  29. Motzki, Harald. “Dating Muslim Traditions: A Survey.” Arabica 52, no. 2 (2005): 204–53.
  30. ———. “The Muṣannaf of ʿAbd Al-Razzāq al-Sanʿānī as a Source of Authentic Aḥādīth of the First Century A. H.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 50, no. 1 (1991): 1–21.
  31. Mustaqim, Abdul. “Paradigma Interkoneks Dalam Memahami Hadis Nabi: Pendekatan Historis, Sosiologis Dan Antropologis.” In Paradigma Integrasi-Interkoneksi Dalam Memahami Hadis Nabi, edited by M. Yusuf, 1–27. Yogyakarta: Bidang Akademik UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2008.
  32. Najwah, Nurun. “Reproduksi Manusia Dalam Perspektif Hadis.” In Paradigma Integrasi-Interkoneksi Dalam Memahami Hadis Nabi, edited by M. Yusuf, 79–103. Yogyakarta: Bidang Akademik UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2008.
  33. Nīsābūrī, Muslim bin al-Ḥajjāj al-. Al-Musnad al-Ṣaḥīḥ al-Mukhtaṣar Bi Naql al-’Adl ‘an al-’Adl Ilā Rasūl Allāh Ṣallā Allāh ‘Alaih Wa Sallam. Edited by M. Fu’ād ‘Abd al-Bāqī. Beirut: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāṡ al-’Arabī, n.d.
  34. Qaraḍāwī, Yūsuf al-. Kaifa Nata‘āmal Ma‘a al-Sunnah. USA: al-Ma‘had al-‘Ālamī li al-Fikr al-Islāmī, 1990.
  35. Qarāfī, Aḥmad bin Idrīs al-. Anwār Al-Burūq Fi Anwā’ al-Furūq, n.d.
  36. Qāsimī, Muḥammad Jamāl al-Dīn bin Muḥammad Sa‘īd al-. Qawā‘id al-Taḥdīṡ Min Funūn Muṣṭalaḥ al-Ḥadīṡ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, n.d.
  37. Rubin, Uri. “Prophets and Caliphs: The Biblical Foundations of The Umayyad Authority.” In Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, edited by Herbert Berg, 74–99. Islamic History and Civilization 49. Brill Academic Publishers, 2003.
  38. Ṣan‘ānī, Muḥammad bin Ismā‘īl al-. Subul Al-Salām Syarḥ Bulūgh al-Marām. Riyadh: Maktabah al-Ma‘ārif, 2006.
  39. Saraqusṭī, al-Qāsim bin Ṡābit al-. Kitāb Al-Dalā’il Fī Gharīb al-Ḥadīṡ. Edited by Muḥammad bin ‘Abd Allāh al-Qannās. Riyadh: al-‘Ubaikān, 2001.
  40. Schoeler, Gregor. The Biography of Muḥammad: Nature and Authenticity. Edited by James E. Montgomery. Translated by Uwe Vagelpohl. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
  41. ———. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam. Edited by James E. Montgomery. Translated by Uwe Vagelpohl. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.
  42. Schuon, Frithjof. The Transcendent Unity of Religions. Illinois: Quest Books, 2005.
  43. Steiner, Rudolf. An Outline of Esoteric Science. Translated by Catherine E. Creeger. New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1997.
  44. Sulamī, ‘Abd al-Malik bin Ḥabīb bin Sulaimān al-. Tafsīr Gharīb Al-Muwaṭṭa’. Edited by ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Sulaimān al-‘Uṡaimīn. Riyadh: Maktabah al-‘Abīkān, 2001.
  45. Suryadi. “Dari Living Sunnah Ke Living Hadis.” In Metodologi Penelitian Living Qur’an Dan Hadis, edited by Sahiron Syamsuddin, 87–104. Yogyakarta: Teras, 2007.
  46. ———. “Paradigma Interkoneksi Dalam Memahami Hadis Nabi: Pendekatan Historis, Sosiologis Dan Antropologis.” In Paradigma Integrasi-Interkoneksi Dalam Memahami Hadis Nabi, edited by M. Yusuf, 57–78. Yogyakarta: Bidang Akademik UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2008.
  47. Suryadilaga, M. Alfatih. “Pemahaman Hadis Tentang Ru’yat al-Hilāl Dalam Penentuan Awal Puasa Ramadhan, Hari Raya Idul Fitri Dan Awal Zulhijjah Dalam Konteks Sains.” In Paradigma Integrasi-Interkoneksi Dalam Memahami Hadis Nabi, edited by M. Yusuf, 105–32. Yogyakarta: Bidang Akademik UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2008.
  48. Syafaq, Hammis. “Relasi Pengetahuan Islam Eksoteris Dan Esoteris.” Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf Dan Pemikiran Islam 2, no. 2 (October 16, 2015): 331. https://doi.org/10.15642/teosofi.2012.2.2.331-347.
  49. Syāfi‘ī, Muḥammad bin Idrīs al-. Ikhtilāf Al-Ḥadīṡ. Beirut: Dār al-Ma‘rifah, 1990.
  50. Tirmiżī, Muḥammad bin ‘Alī al-Ḥakīm al-. Al-Amṡāl Fi al-Kitāb Wa al-Sunnah. Edited by Al-Sayyid al-Jamīlī. Beirut: Dār Ibn Zaidūn, 1987.
  51. ———. Al-Manhiyyāt. Edited by Muḥammad ‘Uṡmān al-Khasyt. Maktabah al-Qur’ān, 1969.
  52. ———. Nawādir Al-Uṣūl Fī Aḥādīṡ al-Rasūl. Edited by ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ‘Umairah. Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, n.d.
  53. ———. Taḥṣīl Naẓā’ir al-Qur’ān. Edited by Ḥusnī Naṣr Zaidān, 1969.
  54. Wansbrough, John E. “Res Ipsa Loquitur: History and Mimesis.” In Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, edited by Herbert Berg, 4–19. Islamic History and Civilization 49. Brill Academic Publishers, 2003.
  55. Yusuf, M. “Aplikasi Metode Tematik Dalam Studi Hadis (Paradigma Integrasi-Interkoneksi Pendekatan Ekonomi Islam).” In Paradigma Integrasi-Interkoneksi Dalam Memahami Hadis Nabi, edited by M. Yusuf, 29–55. Yogyakarta: Bidang Akademik UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2008.
  56. Zamakhsyarī, Maḥmūd bin ‘Amr al-. Al-Fā’iq Fī Gharīb al-Ḥadīṡ. Edited by ‘Alī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī and Muḥammad Abū al-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Lebanon: Dār al-Ma‘rifah, n.d.
  57. Ziriklī, Khair al-Dīn bin Maḥmūd al-. Al-A‘lām. Beirut: Dār al-‘Ilm li al-Malāyīn, 2002.

Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Theologia
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
 

JURNAL THEOLOGIA

FACULTY OF USHULUDDIN & HUMANIORA
State Islamic University of Walisongo
Semarang - Indonesia

 
                                                               
Web
Analytics
View My Stats
apps