Hiijrah: Islamic E-Commerce Disurpted Strategy

M. Ruslianor Maika*  -  Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo, Indonesia
Irwan Alnarus Kautsar  -  Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo, Indonesia

(*) Corresponding Author

The aims of this research is to find an Islamic eCommerce disrupted strategy using 5C model. Our methodologies is a qualitative descriptive to evaluate and describe aspects of innovation based on 5C model. We propose a systematic approach to identify disruptive strategies of Prophet Muhammad displacing the big incumbent market and also provide commercialize the strategy for developing and implementing Islamic Commerce to be electronics. Hijrah is the best disruptive approach that was proven by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) with the closing of the Bani Qainuqa market. He implemented 4C model commerce, collaboration, communication, connection, and only computation that He can’t. The state art of this research are the customers not only ‘go shopping’, but literally are shopping. While the sellers not only ‘go selling’ but Hijrah with the great intention. It is not only about adopting technology but also as a disrupted strategy.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan sebuah strategi diruptif eCommerce Islam menggunakan model 5C (Commerce, Collaboration, Communication, Connection, and Computing). Metodologi yang kami gunakan adalah deskriptif kualitatif, untuk mengevaluasi dan menggambarkan aspek inovasi berdasarkan model 5C. Kami menawarkan sebuah pendekatan sistematik untuk mengenali strategi disruptif Nabi Muhammad dalam menggusur pasar besar milik petahana dan juga menyediakan strategi komersil dalam mengembangkan dan menerapkan perdagangan Islam secara elektronik (Islamic e-commerce). Hijrah adalah pendekatan distruptif terbaik yang pernah dibuktikan oleh Nabi Muhammad Saw dengan menutup pasar Bani Qainuqa. Nabi Muhammad Saw menjalankan model 4C yaitu perdagangan, kolaborasi, komunikasi, koneksi, dan hanya komputasi yang tidak dapat dilakukan. Hasil temuan-temuannya menunjukan bahwa pelanggan tidak hanya untuk ‘berbelanja’, tapi ada tujuan lain memahami kaidah Ilmu sebelum amal dalam berbelanja. Sedangkan penjual tidak sekedar ‘berjualan’ namun berhijrah dengan nilai yang lebih agung. Hal ini tidak hanya perihal penggunaan teknologi tapi juga sebagai strategi disruptif.

Keywords : hijrah; Islam; e-commerce; opportunity; disruptive

  1. Abdulgani, Montadzah Ambag, and Mohd Adam Suhaimi. 2014. “Exploring Factors That Influence Muslim Intention to Purchase Online.” 2014 the 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for the Muslim World, ICT4M 2014, no. January. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICT4M.2014.7020637.
  2. Al-Bisti, Ibnu Hibban. 1993. Shahih Ibnu Hibban. Vol. Juz 15. Beirut: Muassasah ar-risalah.
  3. Al-Mubarkpuri, Sheikh SafiurRahman. 2015. Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Biography of the Prophet Muhammad. Houston: Simply Islam.
  4. Al-Munziri, Al-Hafidz. 2010. Mukhtasor Sunan Abu Daud. Juz 3. Riyadh.
  5. Alotaibi, Mohammed Naif, and Mehmed Asutay. 2015. “Islamic Banking and Islamic E-Commerce: Principles and Realities.” International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management III (4).
  6. Amboala, Tamrin, Ainur Hafizah Anuar Mokhtar, Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad, Muhamad Fauzan bin Noordin, and Roslina Othman. 2015. “Development Method for Shariah Compliant E-Commerce Payment Processing.” International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Oct, 7 (5): 408–15. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJCTE.2015.V7.995.
  7. Amin, Hanudin. 2008. “E-Business from Islamic Perspectives: Prospects and Challenges.” Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce 13 (03).
  8. Askari, Hossein, Zamir Iqbal, and Abbas Mirakhor. 2015. Introduction to Islamic Economics Theory and Application. 1st ed. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.
  9. Ayub, Muhammad. 2007. Understanding Islamic Finance. Understanding Islamic Finance. 1st ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pacfin.2013.09.002.
  10. Badi, Jamal Ahmed. 2016. Commentary of Forty Hadiths of An Nawawi. Islamic Learning Foundation.
  11. Bell, Chester, and Jim Gemmell. 2002. A Call for the Home Media Network. Vol. 45. https://doi.org/10.1145/514236.514237.
  12. Bjørnland, Dag Frederik, Cyrus Ditzel, Pedro Esquivias, Jody Visser, Steve Knox, and Victor Sánchez-Rodríguez. 2015. “What Really Shapes the Customer Experience.” Boston Consulting Group. https://www.bcgperspectives.com/Images/BCG-What-Really-Shapes-Customer-Experience-Sep-2015_tcm80-195636.pdf.
  13. Bower, J L, and C M Christensen. 1995. “Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave.” Harvard Business Review 73 (1): 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301(95)91075-1.
  14. Chapra, M. Umar. 1992. Islam and The Economic System. Vol. 2. 1.
  15. Chaudry, M.A. 1999. “Fundamentals of Islamic Economic System.” presented at the Burhan Education and Welfare Trust Lahore.
  16. Chesbrough, Henry. 2006. Open Business Models. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  17. Christensen, Clayton M, Mark W Johnson, and Darrell K Rigby. 2002. “Foundations for Growth: How To Identify and Build Disruptive New Businesses.” MIT Sloan Management Review 43 (3): 22–31.
  18. Christensen, Clayton M, and Michael Overdorf. 2000. “Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change.” Harvard Business Review, 12.
  19. Christensen, Clayton M, M Raynor, and R. McDonald. 2015. “What Is Disruptive Innovation?” Harvard Business Review, no. December. https://hbr.org/2015/12/what-is-disruptive-innovation.
  20. Competition Commision Singapore. 2017. “Handbook on E-Commerce and Competition in ASEAN.” Competition Commision Singapore. https://www.ccs.gov.sg/media-and-publications/publications/in-house-publications/asean-ecommerce-handbook.
  21. Dailysocial.id. 2017. “Startup Report.” Jakarta: Dailysocial.
  22. Eisenmann, Thomas R., Geoffrey G. Parker, and Marshall W. Van Alstyne. 2006. “Strategies for Two-Sided Markets.” Harvard Business Review 86 (10): 92.
  23. EY. 2016. “World Islamic Banking Competitiveness Report 2016.” Ernst & Young Global Limited. http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ey-world-islamic-banking-competitiveness-report-2016/$FILE/ey-world-islamic-banking-competitiveness-report-2016.pdf.
  24. ———. 2017. “The Future of Money.” Ernst & Young Global Limited. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/40/31/35391062.pdf.
  25. Faris, Ibnu. 1979. Maqayis Al-Lughoh. Vol. Juz 1, Page 341. Beirut: Darul Fikr.
  26. Faruqi, Ismail Raji al. 1992. Al Tawhid: Its Implication For Thought and Life. Second. Virginia: The International Institute of Islamic Thought.
  27. Govindarajulu, Nalini, Shalini Devi, Yiling Ge, Maria Gonzalez, David T. Loyed, and Bonnie Daily. 2004. “Towards Theory Building in E-Commerce: Identification of Pertinent Research Streams and a Call for Further Research.” In World Conference on POM, 2:1–17. Cancun.
  28. Hajr, Imam ibn. 2003. Bulugh Al-Maram Min Adillat Al-Hakam. Edited by Selma Cook. El-Mansoura: Dar Al-Manarah.
  29. Ḥanbal, Abû ‘Abdillâh Muḥammad bin Aḥmad bin. 2001. Al-Musnad. Beirut: Mu’assasah Ar-Risâlah.
  30. Iqbal, Muhaimin. 2017. Beyond The Horizon. 1st editio. Bogor.
  31. Kadar, Abdul, and Muhammad Masum. 2011. “Mobile Commerce and Mobile Payment : A Study on Islamic Perspective” 2010 (December 2010): 37–48.
  32. Kaji, Junko, Karen Edelman, Abrar Khan, Nikita Garia, Matthew Budman, Rithu Thomas, and Preetha Devan. 2018. “The Rise of The Social Enterprise.” Insights. Deloitte.
  33. Kallek, Cengiz. 1995. “Socio-Politico-Economic Sovereignty and The Market of Medina.” Journal of Islamic Economics 4 (1 & 2): 1–14.
  34. Khan, Muhammad Akram. 1995. An Introduction of Islamic Economics. 1st ed. Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Thought.
  35. Kilkki, Kalevi, Martti Mäntylä, Kimmo Karhu, Heikki Hämmäinen, and Heikki Ailisto. 2018. “A Disruption Framework.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 129: 275–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.09.034.
  36. Kostoff, Ronald N., Robert Boylan, and Gene R. Simons. 2004. “Disruptive Technology Roadmaps.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 71 (1): 141–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1625(03)00048-9.
  37. KPMG. 2017. “The Truth about Online Consumers.” Swiss.
  38. Kutz, Martin. 2016. Introducing to E-Commerce. 1st ed. bookboon.
  39. Liu, Jeff, and Paul Brody. 2016. “Is Collaboration The New Innovation?” A N A LY T I C S E RV I C E S. Harvard Business Review & EY.
  40. M. A. Suhaimi, M. J. Mohamed Razi, H. Hussin, M. R. Muhammad, M. Muhammad, and K. Abdullah. 2013. “Conceptualizing Trust-Based Online Behavior Model for Muslim Consumers.” In 2013 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for the Muslim World (ICT4M), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICT4M.2013.6518905.
  41. M. B. Ribadu, and W. N. W. A. Rahman. 2016a. “A Generic Framework for E-Commerce Requirements to Comply with Sharia in Business-to-Consumer Perspective.” In 2016 SAI Computing Conference (SAI), 752–57. https://doi.org/10.1109/SAI.2016.7556064.
  42. ———. 2016b. “A Generic Framework for E-Commerce Requirements to Comply with Sharia in Business-to-Consumer Perspective.” In 2016 SAI Computing Conference (SAI), 752–57. https://doi.org/10.1109/SAI.2016.7556064.
  43. Mohammad, Mustafa Omar, and Syahidawati Shahwan. 2013. “The Objective of Islamic Economic and Islamic Banking in Light of Maqasid Al-Shariah: A Critical Review.” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 13: 75–84. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.13.1885.
  44. Mokhtar, Ainur Hafizah Anuar, Tamrin Amboala, Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad, and Mohd Sarwar E-alam. 2013. “Bai As-Salam And E-Commerce: A Comparative Analysis From Sharia Perspectives.” In Proceedings of the 2nd Applied International Business Conference (AIBC2013). Vol. 2nd. Sabah: Universiti Malaysia Sabah.
  45. Muhammad, Marjan, and Muhd Rosydi Muhammad. 2013. “Building Trust in E-Commerce: A Proposed Shari’ah Compliant Model.” Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce 18.
  46. Muhammad, Marjan, rosydi Muhammad Muhd, Mohd Adam Suhaimi, Mohamed Jalaldeen Mohamed Razi, and Kalthom Abdullah. 2013. “Building Trust in E-Commerce from an Islamic Perspective: A Literature Review.” American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal 5 (5): 161–68.
  47. Muhammad, Muhd Rosydi, Marjan Muhammad, and Khalil Mohammed Khalil. 2013. Towards Shari’ah Compliant E-Commerce Transactions: A Review of Amazon.Com. Vol. 15. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.9.11176.
  48. Muslim, Imam. 2005. Shahih Muslim. Edited by Muhammad Mahdi Al Sharif. 1st ed. Cairo: Dar Al kotob & Jarir Bookstore.
  49. Nawawi, I. 2014. Riyad As Salihin: The Gardens of the Righteous. Tughra Books. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=CxhRCwAAQBAJ.
  50. OJK. 2015. “Roadmap Perbankan Syariah Indonesia 2015-2019.” Jakarta: Otoritas Jasa Keuangan.
  51. Omer, Spahic. 2011. Madinah Market During The Prophet’s TIme (Part 2). https://medinanet.org/2011/03/madinah-market-during-the-prophets-time-part-2/.
  52. Ondrus, Jan, and Yves Pigneur. 2005. “A Disruption Analysis in the Mobile Payment Market.” System Sciences, 2005. HICSS’05. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference On 00 (C): (pp. 84c–84c). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.9.
  53. Quran.com. 2016. Noble Quran. https://quran.com/.
  54. Rafii, Farshad, and Paul J. Kampas. 2002. “How to Identify Your Enemies before They Destroy You.” Harvard Business Review 80 (11): 115.
  55. Ribadu, Mohammed Bashir, and Wan Nurhayati Wan Ab Rahman. 2017. “An Integrated Approach towards Sharia Compliance E-Commerce Trust.” Applied Computing and Informatics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aci.2017.09.002.
  56. Ribadu, Mohammed Bashir, and Wan Nurhayati Wan Ab. Rahman. 2017. “Sharia Compliance Service Quality Metrics For E-Commerce: An Exploratory Analysis.” Proceedings of International Conference on Computing and Informatics 6th (April): 332–40.
  57. Riedl, Jens, Hady Farag, and Dorota Korenkiewicz. 2016. “Transportation and Logistics in a Changing World.” Boston: Boston Consulting Group.
  58. Rigby, Darrell K. 2015. Management Tools 2015. Boston: Bain & Company, Inc.
  59. Rillo, Aladdin D, and Valdimir dela Cruz. 2016. “The Development Dimension of E-Commerce in Asia: Opportunities and Challenges.” Papers and Brief 2016–2. ADBI Policy Brief. Japan, China, People’s Republic of, United States, Switzerland, India: Asian Development Bank. https://www.adb.org/publications/development-dimension-e-commerce-asia-opportunities-and-challenges.
  60. S. K. Kassicieh, S. T. Walsh, J. C. Cummings, P. J. McWhorter, A. D. Romig, and W. D. Williams. 2002. “Factors Differentiating the Commercialization of Disruptive and Sustaining Technologies.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 49 (4): 375–87. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2002.807293.
  61. Sampere, Juan PabloVazquez. 2016. “Why Platform Disruption Is So Much Bigger than Product.” H02STS. Harvard: Harvard Business Review.
  62. Shah, Nuradli Ridzwan, Mohd Zainal Munshid, Faizah Bte Mohd Khalid, and Hanifah Bte Abdul Hamid. 2004. “E-Commerce In Islamic Perspectives: The Theoretical Framework, Key Success Factor And Challenges For Islamic E-Commerce Business.” In Proceeding of Knowledge Management International Conference. Malaysia.
  63. Shanmugam, Bala, and Zaha Rina Zahari. 2009. A Primer On Islamic Finance. Edited by Elizabeth Collins. Salient. 1st ed. The Research Foundation of CFA Institute and the Research Foundation. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2700.76845.
  64. Sunnah.com. 2018a. Jami At-Tirmidhi. sunnah.com.
  65. ———. 2018b. Sahih Al-Bukhari. Book 3, Hadith 10. sunnah.com.
  66. ———. 2018c. Sahih Muslim. sunnah.com.
  67. ———. 2018d. Sunan Abi Dawud. Book of Wages. sunnah.com.
  68. ———. 2018e. Sunan Ib Majah. The Chapters on Business Transactions. sunnah.com.
  69. Su’ud, M.A. 1994. Outlines of Islamic Economics. Kuwait: International Islamic Book Centre.
  70. Suzuki, Yasushi. 2013. “A Post‐Keynesian Perspective on Islamic Prohibition of Gharar.” International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management 6 (3): 200–210.
  71. Tarmizi, Erwandi. 2013. Haram Wealth in Contemporary Muamalah. 5th ed. Bogor: Berkat Mulia Insani.
  72. Thomson Reuters. 2017. “State of The Global Islamic Economy: 2017-2018 Report.” Dubai: Dubai The Capital of Islamic Economy.
  73. Walsh, Steven T. 2004. “Roadmapping a Disruptive Technology: A Case Study: The Emerging Microsystems and Top-down Nanosystems Industry.” Roadmapping: From Sustainable to Disruptive Technologies 71 (1): 161–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2003.10.003.
  74. Zainul, Norazlina, Fauziah Osman, and Siti Hartini Mazlan. 2004. “E-Commerce from an Islamic Perspective.” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 3 (3): 280–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2004.01.002.
  75. Zwass, Vladimir. 2013. “The Framework and The Big Ideas of E-Business.” In Handbook of Strategic E-Business Manajemen, 3–14. Part 1. New York: Springer.
  76. ———. 2014. “Electronic Commerce and Organizational Innovation: Aspects and Opportunities.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 7 (3): 7-37.

Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Economica: Jurnal Ekonomi Islam

Economica: Jurnal Ekonomi Islam
Published by by the Institute of Islamic Economic Research and Development (LP2EI), Faculty of Islamic Economics and Business UIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl Prof. Dr. Hamka Kampus III Ngaliyan Semarang 50185
Phone: +62 857-1999-1679
Website: https://febi.walisongo.ac.id/
Email: economica@walisongo.ac.id

ISSN: 2085-9325 (Print)
ISSN: 2541-4666 (Online)
DOI : 10.21580/economica

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Get a feed by atom here, RRS2 here and OAI Links here