Weberian Sociology and Portrait of Contemporary Sufism Studies

Abdul Kadir Riyadi*  -  (Scopus ID 57200640795) Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia

(*) Corresponding Author

There is always a sense of desperation and pride when one speaks of Weberians sociology in the study of Islam. This paper is composed of that feeling dominating all along. Weber has been the major architect in modern sociology. But in his major works, Islam and only Islam among major world religions, has been left out. If he did pay attention to it, he did so with a sense of pessimism and apathy. But his little interest in Islam has nonetheless stimulated a lot of interest and sparked long debate. His so-called intellectual heirs continued his project and did a great deal of research in Islam. Unbalanced and unsympathetic this study might be, they have nonetheless contributed to the sociological study of Islam and certainly of Sufism. On the other side of the coin, his critiques are no less enthusiastic in their refutation of his major theses and their defense of the more objective study of Islam and Sufism. Hence, the academic debate between the Weberians and their opponents on the nature of Sufism is not yet ceasing and is even developing. This paper is aimed at looking at that debate. It is a kind of contribution to the Weberians sociological study of Sufism. It tries to display the richness of the sociological study in the spiritual dimension of Islam both by the Weberians and their adversaries.

Keywords : Weberian Sociology; Sufism; Euro-centrism; Counter-sociology

  1. Alatas, Syed Farid. “The Weber Thesis and South East Asia.” Archives de Sciences Sociales Des Religions 15, no. 1 (1963): 21–34.
  2. Anjum, Ovamir. “Putting Islam Back into Equation: Islam as a Discursive World-System.” In Islam and the Orientalist World-System, edited by Khaldoun Samman and Mazhar Al-Zo’by. USA: Routledge, 2008.
  3. Arslan, M. “The Work Ethic Values of Protestant British, Catholic Irish and Muslim Turkish Managers.” Journal of Business Ethics 31 (2001): 321–339.
  4. Bennett, Clinton, and Sarwar Alam. Sufism, Pluralism and Democracy. England: Equinox, 2017.
  5. Berger, Peter L. “Charisma and Religious Innovation: The Social Location of Israelite Prophecy.” American Sociological Review 28, no. 6 (December 1963): 940.
  6. Bilqies, Shahida. “Understanding the Concept of Islamic Sufism.” Journal of Education & Social Policy 1, no. 1 (2014): 55–72.
  7. Bruinessen, Martin van. “Sufism, Popular Islam and the Encounter with Modernity.” In Islam and Modernity: Key Issues and Debates, edited by Muhammad Khalid Mas’ud, Armando Salvatore, and Martin van Bruinessen. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.
  8. Cornell, Vincent J. Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism. Texas: University of Texas Press, 1998.
  9. Demir, Ömer, Mustafa Acar, and Metin Toprak. “Anatolian Tigers or Islamic Capital: Prospects and Challenges.” Middle Eastern Studies 40, no. 6 (November 8, 2004): 166–88.
  10. Dressler, Markus, Ron Geaves, and Gritt Klinkhammer. “Introduction.” In Sufis in Western Society: Global Networking and Locality. USA: Routledge, 2009.
  11. Eickelman, Dale F. “Muslim Publics.” In Public Islam and the Common Good, edited by Armando Salvatore and Dale F. Eickelman. Leiden: Brill, 2006.
  12. “‘Functionalism and Structuralism’ Encyclopedia of Sociology,” February 7, 2021.
  13. Geaves, Ron, and Theodore Gabriel. Sufism in Britain. London: Bloomsbury, 2014.
  14. Green, Nile. Sufism: A Global History. UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
  15. Hernandez, Rebecca Skreslet. The Legal Thought of Jalāl Al-Dīn Al-Suyūṭī: Authority and Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  16. Knysh, Alexander. Sufism: A New History of Islamic Mysticism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2017.
  17. Malik, Jamal, and Saeed Zarrabi-Zadeh. “Introduction.” In Sufism East and West. Leiden: BRILL, 2019.
  18. Milani, Milad, Adam Possamai, and Firdaus Wajdi. “Branding of Spiritual Authenticity and Nationalism in Transnational Sufism.” In Religions, Nations, and Transnationalism in Multiple Modernities, edited by Patrick Michel, Adam Possamai, and Bryan S. Turner. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  19. Moore, K. “Paradoxes of Modernity: Culture and Conduct in the Theory of Max Weber. By Wolfgang Schluchter. Stanford University Press, 1996. 389 Pp. $45.00.” Social Forces 75, no. 4 (June 1, 1997): 1495–96.
  20. Raudvere, Catharina, and Leif Stenberg. Sufism Today: Heritage and Tradition in the Global Community. London: IB Tauris, 2009.
  21. Runciman, W. G. “The Sociological Explanation of ‘Religious’ Beliefs.” European Journal of Sociology 10, no. 2 (November 28, 1969): 149–91.
  22. Salvatore, Armando. The Sociology of Islam: Knowledge, Power and Civility. USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.
  23. Schluchter, Wolfgang, and Toby E. Huff. Max Weber and Islam. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.
  24. Sedgwick, Mark. “Sufi Religious Leaders and Sufi Orders in the Contemporary Middle East.” Sociology of Islam 6, no. 2 (June 6, 2018): 212–32.
  25. ———. Western Sufism: From the Abbasids to the New Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  26. Seesemann, Rudiger. The Divine Flood: Ibrahim Niasse and the Roots of a Twentieth-Century Sufi Revival. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  27. Sharot, Stephen. A Comparative Sociology of World Religions: Virtuosos, Priests, and Popular Religion. New York: New York University Press, 2001.
  28. Soyer, Mehmet. “Examining the Origins of Sociology: Continuities and Divergences Between Ibn Khaldun, Giambattista Vico, August Comte, Ludwig Gumplowicz, and Emile Durkheim.” University of North Texas, 2010.
  29. Turner, Bryan S. For Weber: Essays on the Sociology of Fate. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981.
  30. ———. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1992.
  31. ———. “Revisiting Weber and Islam.” The British Journal of Sociology 61, no. 1 (January 14, 2010): 161–66.
  32. Weber, Max. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Edited by Hans Heinrich Gerth and Charles Wright Mills. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
  33. ———. Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Edited by Hans Heinrich Gerth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.
  34. Werbner, Pnina. Pilgrims of Love: The Anthropology of a Global Sufi Cult. London: Hurst and Company, 2003.

Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 Teosofia: Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Teosofia: Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism
Published by Faculty of Ushuluddin and Humanities, State Islamic University (UIN) Walisongo Semarang Indonesia
Jl. Prof. Dr. Hamka KM 1 Ngaliyan, Semarang 50189
Central Java, Indonesia
Phone: +62 24 7601294
HP: +62 85290166620

ISSN: 2302-8017 (Print)

ISSN: 2540-8186 (Online)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License