NEO-SKEPTISISME MICHAEL COOK DAN NORMAN CALDER TERHADAP HADIS NABI MUHAMMAD

Ali Masrur

Abstract


Abstract: This writing studies the ideas of renewed skepticism of Michael Cook and of Norman Calder to the prophetic hadith and to the validity of common link theory. By using the method of comparative analysis, it is found that Cook and Calder are highly skeptical to the prophetic hadith and to the validity of common link theory. Cook and Calder's skepticism even exceed Goldziher's and Schacht's skepticism. Cook and Calder say that common link phenomenon did not indicate that a certain hadith is originated from a key or a common transmitter, but it is the result of a different scenario of the spread of isnād and the result of competition of isnād criticism in the schools of Islamic law (madzāhib) in early Islamic society. Both Cook and Calder hesitate the truth and the validity of common link theory. Therefore, according to them, common link method cannot be used to trace the origin, provenance, and authorship of early hadith.

Abstrak: Tulisan ini mengkaji ide-ide neo skeptisisme Michael Cook dan Norman Calder terhadap hadis Muhammad. dan terhadap validitas teori common link. Dengan menggunakan metode analisa komparatif, ditemukan bahwa Cook dan Calder sangat skeptis terhadap hadis Nabi Muhammad. Terhadap validitas teori common link. Skeptisisme Cook dan Calder bahkan melebihi skeptisisme Goldziher dan Schacht. Cook dan Calder berpendapat bahwa fenomena common link tidak menunjukkan bahwa sebuah hadis tertentu itu bersumber dari seorang periwayat kunci atau periwayat bersama, tetapi ia merupakan akibat dari skenario yang berbeda mengenai penyebaran isnād dan akibat dari kompetisi isnād di berbagai aliran fikih Islam (madhāhib) dalam masyarakat Islam awal. Baik Cook dan Calder sama-sama meragukan kebenaran dan validitas teori common link. Oleh karena itu, menurut mereka, metode common link tidak dapat digunakan untuk menelusuri asal mula, sumber dan ke­pengarangan hadis di masa awal.

Keywords


neo-skeptisisme; teori the spread of isnād; teori common link; kritik isnād; teori pertumbuhan organik

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21580/teo.2017.28.1.1188

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JURNAL THEOLOGIA

FAKULTAS USHULUDDIN & HUMANIORA
Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo
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