Prostitute or First Apostle? Critical Feminist Interpretation of John 4: 1-42 Over the Figure of the Samaritan Woman at Jacob's Well

Asnath Niwa Natar

Abstract


The Bible is indeed written in a patriarchal culture and someone finds it desperate to search for the Bible texts that support equality as it provides insufficient passages of equality between men and women. Nonetheless, to use the feminist perspectives is pivotal in searching for equality in reading the Bible texts. It helps people to learn from the efforts made by women in the Bible in order to get out of their oppression and to not take for granted of their miserable situation. Thus in this paper, the author makes a reinterpretation effort on the text of John 4, 1- 42 which has been interpreted in gender bias. The interpretation uses the historical-critical method with a hermeneutic approach to investigation (suspicion) from a feminist perspective. Hermeneutic investigative approach is an approach that reads the text critically and with assumptions (initial suspicion) about the elements of power relations that exist in the text that are dominative and investigates the text. This new approach can result in a new understanding and appreciation of the figures and actions of the Samaritan woman who has been seen as a prostitute and a sinful woman.


Keywords


apostles; critical interpretation; feminist; masculine; patriarchy; women

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashton, John. 2014. The Gospel of John and Christian Origins. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Barker, Margaret M. 2014. King of the Jews: Temple Theology in John’s Gospel. London: SPCK.

Brown, Sherri. 2015. “Water Imaginary and the Power and Presence of God in the Gospel of John.” Theology Today 72 (3): 289–98.

Card, Michael. 2014. John: The Gospel of Wisdom. Illinois: Downer Grove.

Collins, Adela Yarbrp. 2013. “Epilog.” In John’s Gospel and Intimations of Apocalyptic, edited by Catrin H. Williams and Christoper Rowland. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: Bloomsbury.

Daly, Mary. 1985. Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women’s Liberation. Boston: Beacon Press.

Day, Janeth Norfleete. 2002. The Woman at the Well: Interpretation of John 4:1-42 in Retrospect and Prospect. Leiden/Boston/Koln: Brill.

Duff, Nancy J. 2016. “The Ordination of Women: Biblical Perspectives.” Theology Today 73 (2): 94–104.

Engberg-Pedersen, Troels. 2017. John and Philosophy: A New Reading of the Fourth Gospel. Oxford: University Press.

Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schüssler. 1995a. Bread Not Stone. Boston: Beacon Press.

———. 1995b. Untuk Mengenang Perempuan Itu. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia.

———. 2001. Wisdom Ways: Introducing Feminist Biblical Interpretation. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.

Fowler, William G, and Michael Strickland. 2018. The Influence of Ezekiel in the Fourth Gospel: Intertextuality and Interpretation. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Gorman, Michael J. 2017. “John’s Implicit Ethic of Enemy-Love.” In Johannine Ethics: The Moral World of the Gospel and Epistle of John, edited by Sherri Brown and Christoper W. Skinner, 135–58. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Kasper, Walter. 2009. Lexikon Fuer Theologie Und Kirche. Fraeiburg-Basel-Wina: Herder.

Klerk, Jilles de. 2004. “Through Different Eyes: Indonesian Experiences with an Intercultural Reading of John 4.” In Through the Eyes of Another, edited by Hans de Wit, Louis Jonker, Marleen Kool, and Daniel Schipani. Amsterdam: Institute of Mennonite Studies Vrije Universiteit.

Kristianto, Stefanus. 2019. “Woman and Rape Case: Considering the Second Antithesis.” Asian Journal of Theology 33 (1): 34–46.

Lim, Sung Uk. 2010. “Speak My Name. Anti Colonial Mimicry and the Samaritan Woman in John 4:1-42.” Union Seminary Quarterly Review 62 (3): 35–51.

Listijabudi, Daniel K. 2019. “Pembacaan Lintas Tekstual. Tantangan Ber-Hermeneutik Alkitab Asia (2).” Gema Teologi: Jurnal Teologi Kontekstual 4 (1).

Marc-Andre, Argentino, and Guy Bonneau. 2016. “The Function of Social Conflict in the Gospel of John.” In The Origins of John’s Gospel, edited by Stanley E. Porter and Hughson T. Ong, 124–41. Johannine Studies 2. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Miguez, Nestor. 2004. “Reading John 4 in the Interface Between Ordinariand Scholarly Interpretation.” In Through the Eyes of Another, edited by Hans de Wit, Louis Jonker, Marleen Kool, and Daniel Schipani. Amsterdam: Institute of Mennonite Studies Vrije Universiteit.

O’Day, Gail R. 1992. “John.” In The Women’s Bible Commentary, edited by Carol A. Newsom and Sharon H. Ringe. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Konx Press.

Powery, Emerson B. 2015. “Lost in Translation. Ethnis Conflict in English Bibles’ - The Gospel, ‘Race’ and the Common English Bible. An Introduction and Exploratory Conversation.” Ex Auditu 31: 154–68.

Rainbow, Paul A. 2014. Johannine Theology: The Gospel, The Epistle and The Apocalypse. Illinois: Downer Grove.

Russel, Letty M. 1998. “Kata Pengantar: Membebaskan Firman.” In Perempuan & Tafsir Kitab Suci, edited by Letty M. Russel. Yogyakarta - Jakarta: Kanisius - BPK Gunung Mulia.

Schottroff, Luise, and Marie-Theres Wacker. 2007. Kompendium Feministische Bibelauslegung. Gütersloh: Gütersloher.

Sim, Ronni. 2015. “The Samaritan Woman in John 4.” Journal of Translation 11 (1): 1–34.

Sturdevant, Jason S. 2015. The Adaptable Jesus of the Fourth Gospel: The Pedagogy of the Logos. London/Boston: Brill.

Thyen, Hartwig. 2005. Das Johannes Evangelium. Handbuch Zum Neuen Testament 6. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck Verlag.

Trible, Phyllis. 1982. “Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies.” Christian Century 99.

Wickelns, Ulrich. 1998. Das Evangelium Nach Johannes. NTD Band 4. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21580/ws.27.1.3891

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by

Journal Terindex di DOAJ Journal Terindex di EBSCO Journal Terindex di Crossref  Journal Terindex di Sinta Journal Terindex di Google Scholar Journal Terindex di Academia Journal Terindex di Mendeley  Journal Terindex di Leiden Journal Terindex di Base Journal Terindex di Garuda Journal Terindex di Moraref Journal Terindex di onesearch 

 


Copyright © 2019 Walisongo: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan, ISSN: 0852-7172 (p) 2461-064X (e)

Published by Institute for Research and Community Services (LP2M), Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo No. 3-5 Semarang, Indonesia. Phone +6224 7601292 Email: walisongo@walisongo.ac.id

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
View My Stats