Searching for meaning: The mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between meaningful work and turnover intention of Millennials

Ferdinan Leonardo Siahaan, Eka Gatari

Abstract


The highest trends in employee turnover in companies are found in the Millennial generation. This trend is expected to continue to increase every year. This study aims to see how meaningful work influences the intention to leave the company through the role of work engagement as a mediator in the Millennial Generation sample. This research was conducted on 446 Millennial generation employees from various types of companies using convenience sampling methods. The instruments used in this study were Work as Meaning Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9, and Turnover Intention Scale. Based on mediation analysis, work engagement significantly acts as a mediator of the relationship between meaningful work and the intention to leave the company among millennial workers. Hopefully, the findings of this study can provide information for organizations to promote meaningful work and work engagement to increase the willingness of Millennial Generation employees to stay longer in their companies or organizations today.

Keywords


meaningful work; millennial generation; turnover intention; work engagement

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abid, G., & Hassan Butt, T. (2017). Expressed turnover intention: Alternate method for knowing turnover intention and eradicating common method bias. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 78, 18–26. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.78.18

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2018). Penduduk berumur 15 tahun ke atas menurut golongan umur dan jenis kegiatan selama seminggu yang lalu, 2008 – 2018.

Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress, 22(3), 187–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802393649

Baklaieva, O. (2016). The relationship among meaningfulness of work, work engagement and intention to leave. ISM University of Management and Economics, Vilnius.

Brown, E. A., Thomas, N. J., & Bosselman, R. H. (2015). Are they leaving or staying: A qualitative analysis of turnover issues for Generation Y hospitality employees with a hospitality education. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 46, 130–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.01.011

Coetzee, M., & De Villiers, M. (2010). Sources of job stress, work engagement and career orientations of employees in a South African financial institution. Southern African Business Review, 14(1).

Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2010). Test development. Psychological testing and assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Fairlie, P. (2011). Meaningful Work, Employee Engagement, and other key employee outcomes: Implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 508–525. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311431679

Fatimah, H., Dharmawan, A. H., Sunarti, E., & Affandi, M. J. (2015). The influence of communication and motivation factors on employee engagement in the generation x and y. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 38(1), 22–30.

Forastero, A., Sjabadhyni, B., & Mustika, M. D. (2018). What millennials want: How to optimize their work. Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 3(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.21580/pjpp.v3i1.2489

Gayle, S. C. (1997). Workplace purpose and meaning as perceived by information technology professionals: A phenomenological study. The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Geldenhuys, M., Laba, K., & Venter, C. M. (2014). Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 40(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip. v40i1.1098

Holbeche, L., & Springett, N. (2003). In search of the meaning of work. Exeter: Roffey Park Institute.

Hoole, C., & Bonnema, J. (2015). Work engagement and meaningful work across generational cohorts. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v13i1.681

Jamison, I. B. (2003). Turnover and retention among volunteers in human service agencies. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 23(2), 114–132. https://doi.org/10.1177%2 F0734371X03023002003

Janik, M. (2015). Meaningful work and secondary school teachers’ intention to leave. South African Journal of Education, 35(2), 1008. https://doi.org/10.15700 /saje.v35n2a1008

Johnson, M. J., & Jiang, L. (2017). Reaping the benefits of meaningful work: The mediating versus moderating role of work engagement. Stress and Health, 33(3), 288–297. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2710

Kessler, A. N. (2016). Retaining the nonretainable: A correlational exploration of work centrality and turnover among the millennial workforce. University of La Verne.

Ling, G. J., Yusof, H. M., & Rahman, R. H. A. (2016). The Relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention among employees at a manufacturing company in Malaysia. International Information Institute (Tokyo). Information, 19(8A), 3227.

Lu, A. C. C., & Gursoy, D. (2016). Impact of job burnout on satisfaction and turnover intention: do generational differences matter? Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(2), 210–235. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348013495696

Macky, K., Gardner, D., Forsyth, S., Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, S. M. (2008). Generational differences in psychological traits and their impact on the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(8), 862–877. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940810904367

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11–37. https://doi.org/10.1348/ 096317904322915892

Mobley, W. H., Horner, S. O., & Hollingsworth, A. T. (1978). An evaluation of precursors of hospital employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(4), 408–414. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.4.408

Ng, E. S. W., Schweitzer, L., & Lyons, S. T. (2010). New generation, great expectations: A field study of the millennial generation. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 281–292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9159-4

Park, J., & Gursoy, D. (2012). Generation effects on work engagement among US hotel employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1195–1202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.02.007

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Purba, D. E. (2015). Employee embeddedness and turnover intentions: Exploring the moderating effects of commute time and family embeddedness. Hubs-Asia, 10(1), 39–51. https://doi.org/10.7454/mssh.v19i1.3472

Putri, S., Sjabadhyni, B., & Mustika, M. D. (2018). “Making generation Y stay”: The nediating role of organizational commitment. Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 3(2), 141–152. https://doi.org/10.21580/pjpp.v3i2.2513

Queiri, A., Yusoff, W. F. W., & Dwaikat, N. (2015). Explaining generation-Y employees’ turnover in Malaysian context. Asian Social Science, 11(10), 126. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v11n10p126

Saragih, E. H., Widodo, A., & Prasetyo, B. (2016). Big city millenial workers in Indonesia and factors affecting their commitment to the organisation. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 24, 47–58. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3222.2961

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Utrecht work engagement scale: Preliminary manual. Occupational Health Psychology Unit, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 26, 0–64. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi‐sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701–716. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405282471

Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40(3), 437–453. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00609.x

Sohrabizadeh, S., & Sayfouri, N. (2014). Antecedents and consequences of work engagement among nurses. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 16(11). https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.16351

Steger, M. F., & Dik, B. J. (2010). Work as meaning: individual and organizational benefits of engaging in meaningful work. In Oxford handbook of positive psychology and work (Oxford Uni, pp. 131–142). Oxford.

Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 322–337. https://doi.org/10.1177 /1069072711436160

Suadicani, P., Bonde, J. P., Olesen, K., & Gyntelberg, F. (2013). Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job. Occupational Medicine, 63(2), 96–102. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqs233

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Turnover: Path Analyses Based on Meta‐Analytic Findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259–293. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00874.x

Tohmatsu, D. T. (2018). 2018 Deloitte Millennial Survey: millennials disappointed in business, unprepared for Industry 4.0.

Vidwans, S. S., & Raghvendra, P. (2016). A study of meaningful work, hope and meaning in life in young professional artists. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(4), 469.

Wells-Lepley, M., & Column, W.-L. (2013). Meaningful work: The key to employee engagement. Business Lexicon: Weekly Wire.

Yalabik, Z. Y., Popaitoon, P., Chowne, J. A., & Rayton, B. A. (2013). Work engagement as a mediator between employee attitudes and outcomes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2799–2823. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013. 763844

Yang, S.-B., & Guy, M. E. (2006). GenXers versus boomers: Work motivators and management implications. Public Performance & Management Review, 29(3), 267–284. https://doi.org/10.2753/PMR1530-9576290302

Yeoman, R. (2014). Conceptualising meaningful work as a fundamental human need. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(2), 235–251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1894-9




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21580/pjpp.v5i1.4305

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi
Program Studi Psikologi, Fakultas Psikologi dan Kesehatan (FPK)
Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang
Prof. Dr. HAMKA St., KM 2nd. Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia