Menumbuhkan Keterlibatan Positif dalam Bekerja: Melalui Iklim Kompetisi ataukah Pengembangan Kompetensi?

Rezki Ashriyana Sulistiobudi, Anissa Lestari Kadiyono


Abstract: The implementation of motivational climate to encourage achievement and performance has been discussed over decades but the existing research is still limited to academic, educational and sports contexts. This research discussed about motivational climate in the context of work with the approach of industrial and organizational psychology and its relationship to employee’s work engagement. Specifically, this research puts motivational climate as a resource in the framework of JDR-Model (Job Demand Resource Model) which helps employees in facing job challenges so that they feel more engaged in their work. This research was conducted on 76 employees in one of the SOEs (Stated Owned Enterprise) in West Java. Research approach through ex-post-facto study with multiple linear regression test. The result show that motivational climate significantly influence employee work engagement. Mastery climate as one dimension of motivational climate, plays a significant role to the positive engagement in work. In contrast, the performance of climate did not signifcantly related to work engagement. Thus, support system for self-development and program to improve employee ability can serve as a job resource that contributes to engagement. Climate to encourgages competitionn among employee should be aplied together with opportunity to self development. Therefore, practically, it is important to consider how employee development programs can be implemented in a continously and balanced manner rather than competition program merely.

Abstrak: Penerapan motivational climate untuk mendorong iklim berprestasi dan performansi sudah sangat banyak dibahas bahkan berpuluh tahun sebelum ini. Hanya, penelitian yang ada masih terbatas pada konteks akademik, pendidikan dan bidang olahraga. Oleh karena itu, melalui penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai motivational climate di konteks pekerjaan dengan pendekatan psikologi industri dan organisasi dan perannya terhadap work engagement karyawan. Secara spesifik, penelitian ini mendudukkan motivational climate sebagai resource dalam kerangka JDR-Model (Job Demand Resource Model) yang mem­bantu karyawan dalam menghadapi tantangan pekerjaan sehingga lebih merasa engaged dalam bekerja. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap 76 orang karyawan di salah satu BUMN di Jawa Barat. Pendekatan penelitian melalui ex-post-facto study dengan uji regresi linier berganda. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, diperoleh hasil bahwa motivational climate berperan signifikan terhadap work engagement karyawan. Mastery climate sebagai salah satu dimensi dari motivational climate, berperan signifikan terhadap keterikatan positif dalam bekerja. Sebaliknya, performance climate ternyata tidak menunjukkan peran yang berarti. Dengan demikian, dukungan terhadap pengembangan diri dan kemampuan karyawan dapat berperan sebagai job resource yang berkontribusi untuk menumbuhkan perasaan engaged pada pekerjaannya. Jika iklim yang mendorong kompetisi antar karyawan diterapkan begitu saja tanpa dibarengi kesempatan pengembangan diri maka tidak akan berdampak pada engagement karyawan. Oleh sebab itu, secara praktis sebaiknya perusahaan mem­per­timbang­kan bagaimana program-program pengembangan kemampuan kerja dan pengembangan diri karyawan dapat diimplementasikan dengan berkesinambungan dan seimbang daripada hanya sekedar program kompetisi kerja semata. 


motivational climate; mastery climate; performance climate; work engagement

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Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi
Program Studi Psikologi, Fakultas Psikologi dan Kesehatan (FPK)
Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang
Prof. Dr. HAMKA St., KM 2nd. Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia