Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Surabaya, Surabaya - Indonesia
Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=VI3e6r0AAAAJ&hl=en
Forgiveness, gratitude, and the flourishing of emerging adults with divorced parents
Parental divorce affects the ability of individuals to flourish. This study aims to determine the relationship between forgiveness and gratitude and the flourishing of emerging adults whose parents have divorced. Voluntary convenience sampling was used to identify respondents (N = 429 emerging adults whose parents had been divorced for at least two years). Data were collected using the Emotional Forgiveness Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form, and the PERMA Profiler. Data analysis was performed using multiple regression analysis. The results show that forgiveness and gratitude were significantly associated with flourishing in emerging adults whose parents divorced (R2 = .382, F = 131.634, p < .05). The contribution of gratitude (β = 1.299) to flourishing was greater than that of forgiveness (β = .722). Forgiveness and gratitude can predict flourishing in emerging adults whose parents are divorced, in this case, the role of gratitude is greater than forgiveness. Interventions that combine the basis of forgiveness and gratitude can be used to optimize the flourishing of such emerging adults whose parents are divorced.
Keywords: divorced parents; emerging adults; flourishing; forgiveness; gratitude
- Algoe, S. B. (2012). Find, remind, and bind: The functions of gratitude in everyday relationships. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(6), 455–469. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00439.x
- Arıcioglu, A. (2016). Mediating the effect of gratitude in the relationship between forgiveness and life satisfaction among university students. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(2), 275–282. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v5n2p275
- Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood. A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. The American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10842426
- Azra, F. N. (2017). Forgiveness dan subjective well-being dewasa awal atas perceraian orang tua pada masa remaja. Psikoborneo: Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, 5(3), 294–302. https://doi.org/10.30872/psikoborneo.v5i3.4412
- Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
- Brann, M., Rittenour, C. E., & Myers, S. A. (2007). Adult children’s forgiveness of parents’ betrayals. Communication Research Reports, 24(4), 353–360. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090701624254
- Breen, W. E., Kashdan, T. B., Lenser, M. L., & Fincham, F. D. (2010). Gratitude and forgiveness: Convergence and divergence on self-report and informant ratings. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(8), 932–937. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.033
- Butler, J., & Kern, M. L. (2016). The PERMA-Profiler: A brief multidimensional measure of flourishing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 6(3), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v6i3.526
- Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2015). Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: the role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1367. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01367
- Elfida, D., Milla, M. N., Mansoer, W. W. D., & Takwin, B. (2021). Adaptasi dan uji properti psikometrik The PERMA-Profiler pada orang Indonesia. Persona:Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 10(1), 81–103. https://doi.org/10.30996/persona.v10i1.4986
- Emmons, R. A., & Crumpler, C. A. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 56–69. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.56
- Emmons, R. A., McCullough, M. E., & Tsang, J.-A. (2003). The assessment of gratitude. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models of measures (pp. 327–341). American Psychological Association.
- Folkman, S. (2013). Stress: Appraisal and Coping. In Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 1913–1915). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_215
- Grimaldy, D. V., & Haryanto, H. C. (2020). Adaptation of Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ–6) in Indonesian context. Jurnal Psikologi, 47(1), 18–29. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpsi.39608
- Hartini, N. (2019). Complete family and teenager’s well-being. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, 11(5), 1302–1307. https://www.jardcs.org/abstract.php?id=1512
- Hetherington, E. M. (2005). Divorce and the adjustment of children. Pediatrics in Review, 26(5), 163–169. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.26-5-163
- Hill, P. L., Heffernan, M. E., & Allemand, M. (2015). Forgiveness and subjective well-being: Discussing mechanisms, contexts, and rationales. In Forgiveness and health (pp. 155–169). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9993-5_11
- Hlava, P., & Elfers, J. (2014). The lived experience of gratitude. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 54(4), 434–455. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167813508605
- Huppert, F. A., & So, T. T. C. (2013). Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Social Indicators Research, 110(3), 837–861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9966-7
- Kemenag.go.id. (2020, September 11). Kemenag - BP4 perkuat sinergi, tekan angka perceraian. https://kemenag.go.id/read/kemenag-bp4-perkuat-sinergi-tekan-angka-perceraian-xkv8g
- Kersten, A. (2019). Being grateful at work [Unpublished master thesis]. Tilburg University.
- Komase, Y., Watanabe, K., & Kawakami, N. (2021). Effects of a gratitude intervention program on work engagement among Japanese workers: A protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychology, 9(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00541-6
- Kurniati, N. M. T., Worthington, E. L., Widyarini, N., Citra, A. F., & Dwiwardani, C. (2020). Does forgiving in a collectivistic culture affect only decisions to forgive and not emotions? REACH forgiveness collectivistic in Indonesia. International Journal of Psychology, 55(5), 861–870. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12648
- Lambert, N. M., Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Fincham, F. D., Hicks, J. A., & Graham, S. M. (2010). Family as a salient source of meaning in young adulthood. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(5), 367–376. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2010.516616
- Lau, B. H.-P., & Cheng, C. (2017). Gratitude and coping among familial caregivers of persons with dementia. Aging & Mental Health, 21(4), 445–453. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2015.1114588
- Lee, S.-A. (2019). Romantic relationships in young adulthood: Parental divorce, parent-child relationships during adolescence, and gender. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(2), 411–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1284-0
- Mayerson, N. H. (2020). The character strengths response: An urgent call to action. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(2106), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02106
- McCullough, M. E. (2000). Forgiveness as human strength: Theory, measurement, and links to well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.43
- McCullough, M. E. (2008). Beyond revenge: The evolution of the forgiveness instinct. Jossey-Bass.
- McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168
- McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 249–266. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.249
- Narula, B. (2015). An additive impact of relationship between gratitude and forgiveness: A review. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(1), 43–48. https://doi.org/10.25215/0301.058
- Perales, F., Johnson, S. E., Baxter, J., Lawrence, D., & Zubrick, S. R. (2017). Family structure and childhood mental disorders: New findings from Australia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(4), 423–433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-016-1328-y
- Permana, Y. (2017). The relations between gratitude and happiness among students of divorce victims at SMA PGRI Purwoharjo. 3rd Asean Conference on Psychology, Counseling, & Humanities, 92–96. https://psychologyforum.umm.ac.id/files/file/92-96 yudha permana.pdf
- Rahayu, I. I., & Setiawati, F. A. (2019). The dinamic of psychological well-being and gratitude in adolescence. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Current Issues in Education (ICCIE 2018), 326, 253–257. https://doi.org/10.2991/iccie-18.2019.45
- Safaria, T. (2014). Forgiveness, gratitude, and happiness among college students. International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS), 3(4), 241–245. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v3i4.4698
- Safaria, T., Diponegoro, A. M., & Bashori, K. (2017). The efficacy of gratitude and forgiveness training to increase happiness. The Social Sciences, 12(11), 1948–1951. https://doi.org/10.36478/sscience.2017.1948.1951
- Satici, S. A., Uysal, R., & Akin, A. (2014). Forgiveness and vengeance: The mediating role of gratitude. Psychological Reports, 114(1), 157–168. https://doi.org/10.2466/07.09.PR0.114k11w9
- Schotanus-Dijkstra, M., Pieterse, M. E., Drossaert, C. H. C., Westerhof, G. J., de Graaf, R., ten Have, M., Walburg, J. A., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2016). What factors are associated with flourishing? Results from a large representative national sample. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(4), 1351–1370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9647-3
- Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. Free Press.
- Seligman, M. (2018). PERMA and the building blocks of well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(4), 333–335. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2018.1437466
- Sood, S., & Gupta, R. (2012). A study of gratitude and well being among adolescents. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(5), 35–38. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-0353538
- Thomas, P. A., Liu, H., & Umberson, D. (2017). Family relationships and well-being. Innovation in Aging, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx025
- Toussaint, L., & Friedman, P. (2009). Forgiveness, gratitude, and well-being: The mediating role of affect and beliefs. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(6), 635–654. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9111-8
- Toussaint, L., & Webb, J. R. (2005). Theoretical and empirical connections between forgiveness, mental health, and well-being. In Handbook of Forgiveness (pp. 349–362). Brunner-Routledge.
- Watkins, D. A., Hui, E. K. P., Luo, W., Regmi, M., Worthington, E. L., Hook, J. N., & Davis, D. E. (2011). Forgiveness and Interpersonal Relationships: A Nepalese Investigation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 151(2), 150–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540903368541
- Watkins, P. C. (2014). Gratitude and the good life: Toward a psychology of appreciation. Springer.
- Witvliet, C. van O., Ludwig, T. E., & Laan, K. L. Vander. (2001). Granting forgiveness or harboring grudges: Implications for emotion, physiology, and health. Psychological Science, 12(2), 117–123. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00320
- Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. A. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 890–905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005
- Worthington-Jr., E. L., Hook, J. N., Utsey, S. O., Williams, J. K., & Neil, R. L. (2007). Decisional and emotional forgiveness. The International Positive Psychology Summit.
- Worthington, E. L., & Scherer, M. (2004). Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: theory, review, and hypotheses. Psychology & Health, 19(3), 385–405. https://doi.org/10.1080/0887044042000196674
- Wu, Q., Chi, P., Zeng, X., Lin, X., & Du, H. (2019). Roles of anger and rumination in the relationship between self-compassion and forgiveness. Mindfulness, 10(2), 272–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0971-7
- Zeigler-Hill, V., & Shackelford, T. K. (Eds.). (2020). Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.