Factors inhibiting the psychological recovery process of children in conflict with the law

Putri Marlenny Puspitawati*  -  Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Subandi Subandi    -  (Scopus ID 44061779800) Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Maria Goretti Adiyanti    -  (Scopus ID 55614426200) Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Eddy Omar Sharif Hiariej  -  Faculty of Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Solmaz Bulut    -  (Scopus ID 7003567293) Family and Children's Services, Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States

(*) Corresponding Author
Psychological assistance is strongly needed in relation to the recovery of the psychological state of children who are in conflict with the law. Semarang City has developed a school-based restorative justice program as a response to such needs. This research aims to explore the factors which could potentially obstruct the psychological recovery process of these children during the implementation of the program. The study adopts a qualitative design through multiple case studies, with the participation of three children and those close to them. The case study data analysis was conducted based on Yin's (2015) techniques, consisting of pattern matching, explanation building, logic models, and cross-case synthesis. The results show that negative support from peers, drug abuse, negative role models, emotional detachment from close friends and relatives, and negative stigma were the factors obstructing the recovery process of the participants. These findings could be essential for practitioners’ design of psychological interventions which are more relevant to the children’s recovery needs.

Keywords: psychological recovery; children in conflict with the law; restorative justice

  1. Abidin, Z. (2019). Rehabilitasi sosial anak berhadapan dengan hukum di lembaga Indonesia Safe House di Malang. Sosio Konsepsia, 8(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.33007/ska.v8i2.1463
  2. Andresen, R., Oades, L., & Caputi, P. (2011). Psychological recovery beyond mental illness. Wiley-Blackwell.
  3. Anthony, W. A., & Liberman, R. P. (1992). Principles and practice of psychiatric rehabilitation. In R. P. Liberman (Ed.), Handbook of Psychiatric Rehabilitation (pp. 1–29). MacMillan.
  4. Azam, S. B. M. (2016). Amalan restoraktif dalam program perlindungan dan pemulihan remaja hamil luar nikah di Malaysia. The Malaysian Journal of Social Administration, 12(1), 100–135. https://doi.org/10.22452/mjsa.vol12no1.5
  5. Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile justice and substance use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165–183. https://doi.org/10.1353/foc.0.0017
  6. Creswell, J. W. (2015). Riset pendidikan: Perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi riset kualitatif & kuantitatif. Pustaka Pelajar.
  7. Fox, B. H., Perez, N., Cass, E., Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2015). Trauma changes everything: Examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders. Child Abuse & Neglect, 46, 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.01.011
  8. Gilman, A. B., Hill, K. G., & Hawkins, J. D. (2014). Long-term consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. American Journal of Public Health, 104(5), 938–945. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301821
  9. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press.
  10. Haviland, A. M., & Nagin, D. S. (2005). Causal inferences with group based trajectory models. Psychometrika, 70(3), 557–578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-004-1261-y
  11. Inzlicht, M., Tullett, A. M., & Gutsell, J. N. (2012). Stereotype threat spillover: The short-and long-term effects of coping with threats to social identity. In M. Inzlicht & T. Schmader (Eds.), Stereotype threat: Theory, process, and application. Oxford University Press.
  12. Juneman, A. (2008). Yurisprudensi terapeutik: Peran integratif psikologi dalam proses hukum untuk melayani kesejahteraan pribadi (well-being) klien hukum. Jurnal Kajian Ilmiah Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya, 9(3), 908–922. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/cfg4u
  13. Kordi, K., & H, M. G. (2015). Durhaka kepada anak: Refleksi mengenai hak dan perlindungan anak. Pustaka Baru Press.
  14. Krohn, M. D., Ward, J. T., Thornberry, T. P., Lizotte, A. J., & Chu, R. (2011). The cascading effects of adolescent gang involvement across the life course. Criminology, 49(4), 991–1028. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2011.00250.x
  15. Liberman, Robert Paul, Kopelowicz, A., Ventura, J., & Gutkind, D. (2002). Operational criteria and factors related to recovery from schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 14(4), 256–272. https://doi.org/10.1080/0954026021000016905
  16. Link, B. G., Cullen, F. T., Struening, E., Shrout, P. E., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (1989). A modified labeling theory approach to mental disorders: An empirical assessment. American Sociological Review, 54(3), 400–423. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095613
  17. Melde, C., & Esbensen, F.-A. (2014). The relative impact of gang status transitions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 51(3), 349–376. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427813507059
  18. Miers, D. (2001). An international review of restorative justice. Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit.
  19. Puspitawati, P. M., Adiyanti, M. G., & Minza, M. W. (2019). Pertimbangan logis guru terhadap Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 11 Tahun 2012 dalam konteks pemulihan anak yang berkonflik dengan hukum. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.
  20. Pyrooz, D. C., Turanovic, J. J., Decker, S. H., & Wu, J. (2016). Taking stock of the relationship between gang membership and offending. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(3), 365–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854815605528
  21. Rashid, Y., Rashid, A., Warraich, M. A., Sabir, S. S., & Waseem, A. (2019). Case study method: A step-by-step guide for business researchers. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18, 160940691986242. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406919862424
  22. Roche, D. (2003). Accountability in restorative justice. Oxford University Press.
  23. Sacks, V., Murphey, D., & Moore, K. (2014). Adverse childhood experiences: National and state level prevalence. In Research Brief - Child Trends. https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.1193.8087
  24. Thornberry, T. P., Kearley, B., Gottfredson, D. C., Slothower, M. P., Devlin, D. N., & Fader, J. J. (2018). Reducing crime among youth at risk for gang involvement. Criminology & Public Policy, 17(4), 953–989. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12395
  25. Underwood, L., & Washington, A. (2016). Mental illness and juvenile offenders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(2), 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020228
  26. Van Ness, D. W., & Strong, K. H. (2015). Restoring justice: An introduction to restorative justice. Routledge.
  27. Weaver, C. M., Borkowski, J. G., & Whitman, T. L. (2008). Violence breeds violence: Childhood exposure and adolescent conduct problems. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1), 96–112. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20219
  28. Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., & Piquero, A. R. (2017). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and recidivism in a sample of juvenile offenders in Community-Based Treatment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(11), 1210–1242. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X15613992
  29. Wong, D. S. W., Cheng, C. H. K., Ngan, R. M. H., & Ma, S. K. (2011). Program effectiveness of a restorative whole-school approach for tackling school bullying in Hong Kong. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(6), 846–862. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X10374638
  30. Yin, R. K. (2015). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Sage.
  31. Young, D. W., Dembo, R., & Henderson, C. E. (2007). A national survey of substance abuse treatment for juvenile offenders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32(3), 255–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2006.12.018
  32. Zehr, H. (2014). The little book of restorative justice. Good Books.

Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Fakultas Psikologi dan Kesehatan 
Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Prof. Dr. HAMKA, Kampus III Ngaliyan Semarang 50185 Central Java - Indonesia
website: fpk.walisongo.ac.id