Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri 1, Nunukan, North Kalimantan - Indonesia
Rural EFL Teachers’ Emotions and Agency in Online Language Teaching: I Will Survive
This article explores rural English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ emotions and agency in online language teaching. Based on Hargreaves’s emotional geography framework, teachers’ emotions and teacher agency are both captured through teachers’ narration about their feelings, salient challenges that they encountered, and their coping strategies. Research data were collected using semi-structured interviews with two English teachers working in rural upper secondary schools in Nunukan, Indonesia. The collected data were analyzed with an inductive approach. The findings portray how rural EFL teachers experience various emotions which are mainly caused by physical and sociocultural distance, how agency helps these teachers with abilities to reflect on their feelings and to take crucial actions, and to what extend the need for immediate professional development programs to develop online teaching skills is.
Keywords: Online language teaching; rural teachers; teacher agency; teacher professional development
- Adamson, L., & Meister, D. G. (2005). Teachers’ knowledge about adolescents: An interview study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 46(4), 343–348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00464.x
- Anwar, K., Faruq Ubaidillah, M., & Sulistiyo, U. (2020). Exploring EFL teachers’ classroom management: The case of Indonesian remote secondary schools. Journal of Language and Education, 6(3), 22–35. https://doi.org/10.17323/jle.2020.10549
- Ashton, K. (2020). Novice teacher agency in the multi-level language classroom. Language, Culture and Curriculum. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2020.1818766
- Biesta, G. (2011). From Learning Cultures to Educational Cultures: Values and Judgements in Educational Research and Educational Improvement. International Journal of Early Childhood, 43(3), 199–210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-011-0042-x
- Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
- Cifuentes, L., & Doris Shih, Y. C. (2001). Teaching and learning online: A collaboration between U.S. and taiwanese students. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(4), 456–474. https://doi.org/10.1080/08886504.2001.10782327
- Clandinin, D. J. (2006). Narrative inquiry: A methodology for studying lived experience. Research Studies in Music Education, 27(1), 44–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/1321103X060270010301
- Compton, L. K. L. (2009). Preparing language teachers to teach language online: A look at skills, roles, and responsibilities. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(1), 73–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588220802613831
- Cowie, N. (2011). Emotions that experienced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers feel about their students, their colleagues and their work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(1), 235–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.006
- Fairman, J. C., & Mackenzie, S. V. (2012). Spheres of teacher leadership action for learning. Professional Development in Education, 38(2), 229–246. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2012.657865
- Febriana, M., Karlina, Y., Nurkamto, J., & Rochsantiningsih, D. (2018). Teacher Absenteeism in Rural Indonesian Schools. 2, 47–51.
- Fogle, L. W., & Moser, K. (2017). Language Teacher Identities in the Southern United States: Transforming Rural Schools. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 16(2), 65–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2016.1277147
- Gigliotti, R. A. (2016). Institutional Identification and Sense of Community: Analysis of a New Online Graduate Public Administration Program. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 22(3), 399–414. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2016.12002255
- Hampel, R., & Stickler, U. (2005). New skills for new classrooms: Training tutors to teach languages online. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(4), 311–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588220500335455
- Hansen-Thomas, H., Grosso Richins, L., Kakkar, K., & Okeyo, C. (2016). I do not feel I am properly trained to help them! Rural teachers’ perceptions of challenges and needs with English-language learners. Professional Development in Education, 42(2), 308–324. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2014.973528
- Hargreaves, A. (2000). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(8), 811–826. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00028-7
- Hargreaves, A. (2001a). Emotional geographies of teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1056–1080. https://doi.org/10.1111/0161-4681.00142
- Hargreaves, A. (2001b). The emotional geographies of teachers’ relations with colleagues. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(5), 503–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(02)00006-X
- Hargreaves, A. (2005). Educational change takes ages: Life, career and generational factors in teachers’ emotional responses to educational change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(8), 967–983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.06.007
- Hayes, D. (2010). Language learning, teaching and educational reform in rural Thailand: An English teacher’s perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 30(3), 305–319. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2010.495843
- Howland, J. L., & Moore, J. L. (2002). Student perceptions as distance learners in internet-based courses. Distance Education, 23(2), 183–195. https://doi.org/10.1080/0158791022000009196
- Iwaniec, J. (2014). Motivation of pupils from southern Poland to learn English. System, 45(1), 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.05.003
- Iwaniec, J. (2020). The effects of parental education level and school location on language learning motivation. Language Learning Journal, 48(4), 427–441. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2017.1422137
- Jenkins, G. (2020). Teacher agency: the effects of active and passive responses to curriculum change. Australian Educational Researcher, 47(1), 167–181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-019-00334-2
- Kam, H. W. (2002). English Language Teaching in East Asia Today: An Overview. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 22(2), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/0218879020220203
- Kayi-Aydar, H. (2015). Multiple Identities, Negotiations, and Agency Across Time and Space: A Narrative Inquiry of a Foreign Language Teacher Candidate. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 12(2), 137–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2015.1032076
- Kormos, J., & Csizér, K. (2008). Age-related differences in the motivation of learning english as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves, and motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 58(2), 327–355. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00443.x
- Kozar, O. (2012). Use of synchronous online tools in private English language teaching in Russia. Distance Education, 33(3), 415–420. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2012.723164
- Lamb, M. (2012). A Self System Perspective on Young Adolescents’ Motivation to Learn English in Urban and Rural Settings. Language Learning, 62(4), 997–1023. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00719.x
- Lestiyanawati, R., & Widyantoro, A. (2020). Strategies and Problems Faced by Indonesian Teachers in Conducting E- Learning System During COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of Culture, Literature, Linguistic and English Teaching, 2(1), 71–82.
- Liu, Yongcan. (2016). The emotional geographies of language teaching. Teacher Development, 20(4), 482–497. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2016.1161660
- Liu, Yuanyuan, Wang, H., & Zhao, R. (2020). Teacher agency and spaces in changes of English language education policy. Current Issues in Language Planning, 0(0), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2020.1791532
- Lundin, L. (2020). Online narratives about panic attacks: interpreted within a psychodynamic framework. Social Work in Mental Health, 18(3), 349–365. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2020.1744500
- Miller, E. R., & Gkonou, C. (2018). Language teacher agency, emotion labor and emotional rewards in tertiary-level English language programs. System, 79, 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.03.002
- Molla, T., & Nolan, A. (2020). Teacher agency and professional practice. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 26(1), 67–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2020.1740196
- Mpahla, N. E., & Okeke, C. I. O. (2015). The Rurality of Continuing Professional Teacher Development (CPTD). Studies of Tribes and Tribals, 13(1), 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972639x.2015.11886708
- Pitura, J., & Terlecka-Pacut, E. (2018). Action research on the application of technology assisted urban gaming in language education in a Polish upper-secondary school. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(7), 734–763. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1447490
- Priestley, M., Biesta, G., & Robinson, S. (2012). Teachers as agents of change: An exploration of the concept of teacher agency. http://www.ioe.stir.ac.uk/events/tacc.php.
- Rejeki, S., Kristina, D., & Drajati, N. A. (2018). SOCIOCULTURAL FRAMEWORK Emotional Geography of a Female EFL Teacher in Rural Area in Indonesia. 2, 52–55.
- Rogers, R., & Wetzel, M. M. (2013). Studying Agency in Literacy Teacher Education: A Layered Approach to Positive Discourse Analysis. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 10(1), 62–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2013.753845
- Such, B. (2019). Scaffolding English language learners for online collaborative writing activities. Interactive Learning Environments, 4820. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1579233
- Wigati, I. (2019). Attitudes Towards Learning English : A Comparative Study Of Rural And Urban Junior.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.