Leader-member exchange affects work engagement: The role of psychological well-being mediation

Winny Yus Permatasari, Fendy Suhariadi


Work engagement has a contribution to the success of an organization. Governmental institutions are often criticized for showing less satisfying performance and less effective services due to the misconducts of the civil servants such as coming late to work, leaving at working hours, and being less enthusiastic at work. This study aimed to examine civil servants' working conditions using three variables, namely leader-member exchange, psychological well-being, and work engagement. The measuring tools used referred to the Leader-Member Exchange Multidimensional (Liden & Maslyn, 1998), Psychological Well-being Scale (Ryff, 1989) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). There were 80 civil servants involved in this study as the subjects. They were selected using simple random sampling technique. Statistical techniques used in this study Structural Equation Modeling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) with Warp PLS 5.0 Software. The result indicated that the three variables had a positive correlation with one another, and psychological well-being mediated the influence of leader-member exchange on work engagement.


leader-member exchange; mediation; psychological well-being; work engagement; civil servants

Full Text:



Abbas, M. (2017). The effect of organizational culture and leadership style towards employee engagement and their impact towards employee loyalty. Asian Journal of Technology and Management Research, 7(7), 1–11.

Agarwal, U. A., Datta, S., Blake‐Beard, S., & Bhargava, S. (2012). Linking LMX, innovative work behaviour and turnover intentions. Career Development International, 17(3), 208–230. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431211241063

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), 209–223. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430810870476

Bakker, A. B., & Leiter, M. P. (Eds.). (2010). Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research. New York: Psychology Press.

Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008, February). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/job.515

Bandyopadhyay, G., & Srivastava, K. B. L. (2017). Determinants of psychological well-being and its impact on mental health and employee engagement. Indian Journal of Health and Well-Being, 8(4), 250–257. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317302790_Determinants_of_psychological_well-being_and_its_impact_on_mental_health_and_employee_engagement

Berger, A. (2010). Review: Happiness at work. USA: Basil & Spice.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.

Burnette, C. M. (2012). How leadership can influence well-being: The roles of leader-member exchange and social support. University of Clemson.

Byrne, O., & MacDonagh, J. (2018). What’s love got to do with it? Employee engagement amongst higher education workers. The Irish Journal of Management, 36(3), 189–205. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijm-2017-0019

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2009). Organization development & change. (J. W. Calhoun & M. Acuña, Eds.). Mason, OH, USA: South-Western Cengage Learning. Retrieved from www.ichapters.com

Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations. A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13(1), 46–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(75)90005-7

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268. https://doi.org/10.1207/


Dhivya, A. S., & Sripirabaa, B. (2015). The impact of leader-member exchange on work engagement: An empirical study. International Journal of Management (IJM), 6(1), 139–150. Retrieved from http://www.iaeme.com/IJM.asp

Dienesch, R. M., & Liden, R. C. (1986). Leader-Member Exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. The Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 618–634. https://doi.org/10.2307/258314

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, (1), 39. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312

Gastañaduy, K., Herrera, D., & Lens, W. (2014). Work motivation and psychological well-being of volunteers and non-volunteers. Revista de Orientación Educacional, 28(53), 37–50. Retrieved from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Work-motivation-and-psychological-well-being-of-and-Gastañaduy-Herrera/3fa685d78b8854c9058157a44394afdf6caf9a9c

Ghozali, I., & Latan, H. (2014). Partial Least Squares: Konsep, teknik dan aplikasi menggunakan program SmartPLS3.0. Semarang: Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5

Gregersen, S., Vincent-Höper, S., & Nienhaus, A. (2016). Job-related resources, leader–member exchange and well-being–a longitudinal study. Work and Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations, 30(4), 356–373. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2016.1249440

Gutermann, D., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Boer, D., Born, M., & Voelpel, S. C. (2017). How leaders affect followers’ work engagement and performance: Integrating leader−member exchange and crossover theory. British Journal of Management, 28(2), 299–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12214

Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 632–643. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.3.632

Hoole, C., & Bonnema, J. (2015). Work engagement and meaningful work across generational cohorts. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v13i1.681

Iswanto, F., & Agustina, I. (2016). Peran dukungan sosial di tempat kerja terhadap keterikatan kerja karyawan. Mediapsi, 02(02), 38–45. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.mps.2016.002.02.6

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724. https://doi.org/10.2307/256287

Kock, N. (2013). WarpPLS 4.0 User Manual. Laredo Texas: ScriptWarp Systems.

Kong, Y. (2009). A study on the job engagement of company employees. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 1(2), 65–68. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v1n2p65

Kuvaas, B., & Dysvik, A. (2010). Exploring alternative relationships between perceived investment in employee development, perceived supervisor support and employee outcomes. Human Resource Management Journal, 20(2), 138–156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2009.00120.x

Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24(1), 43–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639802400105

Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Vol. 15, pp. 47–119). US: Elsevier Science/JAI Press.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 662–674. https://doi.org/


Marques, R. A. (2013). Antecedents and outcomes of work-related psychological well-being of staff members of The University of Namibia. The University of Namibia, Namibia.

Maulida, D., & Shaleh, A. R. (2017). Pengaruh Modal Psikologis dan Totalitas Kerja terhadap Kesejahteraan Subjektif. Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 2(2), 107–124. https://doi.org/10.21580/pjpp.v2i2.2461

Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., & Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(1), 149–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2006.09.002

Messias, F., Mendes, J., & Monteiro, I. (2010). The effects of leadership behaviors on the employee well-being in the workplace: a worthy investment from managers or leaders.

Nisfiannoor, M. (2009). Pendekatan statistika modern untuk ilmu sosial. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.

Page, K. M., & Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2009). The “what”, “why” and “how” of employee well-being: A new model. Social Indicators Research, 90(3), 441–458. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-008-9270-3

Pritchard, K. (2008). Employee engagement in the UK: Meeting the challenge in the public sector. Development and Learning in Organisations, 22(6), 15–17. https://doi.org/10.1108/14777280810910302

Radstaak, M., & Hennes, A. (2017). Leader–member exchange fosters work engagement: The mediating role of job crafting. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 43(0). https://doi.org/10.4102/


Riggio, R. E. (2008). Leadership development: The current state and future expectations. Consulting Psychology Journal, 60(4), 383–392. https://doi.org/10.1037/1065-9293.60.4.383

Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Straub, D. W. (2012). Editor’s Comments: A critical look at the use of PLS-SEM in MIS Quarterly. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems. University of Minnesota. https://doi.org/10.2307/41410402

Robertson, I. T., & Cooper, C. L. (2009). Full engagement: The integration of employee engagement and psychological well‐being. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(4), 324–336. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437731011043348

Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement. Report-Institute for Employment Studies.

Rodwell, J., Noblet, A., Demir, D., & Steane, P. (2009). Supervisors are central to work characteristics affecting nurse outcomes. Journal of Nursing Scholarship: An Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 41(3), 310–319. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01285.x

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The Structure of Psychological Well-Being Revisited, 69(4), 719–727.

Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: a eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being, 13–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9019-0

Sadida, N., & Fitria, N. (2019). Analisis kesejahteraan psikologis karyawan dan kualitas interaksi bawahan berdasarkan kepribadian atasan. Humanitas, 15(1), 72–81. https://doi.org/


Sarisusantini, K. (2012). Meningkatkan leader member exchange dari bawahan dan kepuasan terhadap atasan melalui pelatihan coaching bagi penyelia di PT X. Universitas Indonesia.

Sartono, H., & Ardhani, M. (2017). Work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction among employees of a coal mining company in South Borneo. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 8(2), 107–122. https://doi.org/10.21632/irjbs.8.2.107-122

Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Work engagement. What do we know and where do we go? Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 14(1), 3–10.

Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). What is engagement? In C. Truss, K. Alfes, R. Delbridge, A. Shantz, & E. Soane (Eds.), Employee engagement in theory and practice. London: Routledege.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). UWES Utrecht Work Engagement Scale: test manual. Utrecht: Department of Psychology, Utrecht University.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job Demands and Job Resources and Their Relationship with Burnout and Engagement : A Multiple-Sample Study relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(October 2002), 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701–716. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405282471

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063–1078. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.1063

Sharma, A., Goel, A., & Sengupta, S. (2017). How does Work Engagement vary with Employee Demography ? – Revelations from the Indian IT industry. Procedia Computer Science, 122, 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.353

Sholihin, M., & Ratmono, D. (2014). Analisis SEM-PLS dengan WarpPLS 3.0 untuk hubungan nonlinier dalam penelitian sosial dan bisnis. Yogyakarta: Andi Publisher.

Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. Handbook of Positive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195187243.001.0001

Sparr, J. L., & Sonnentag, S. (2008). Fairness perceptions of supervisor feedback, LMX, and employee well-being at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(2), 198–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320701743590

Sunjoyo, D. (2013). Aplikasi SPSS untuk smart riset. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Taghipour, A., & Dezfuli, Z. K. (2013). Designing and testing a model of antecedents of work engagement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 149–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.526

Tesi, A., Aiello, A., & Giannetti, E. (2018). The work-related well-being of social workers: Framing job demands, psychological well-being, and work engagement. Journal of Social Work, 19(1), 121–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017318757397

Trinchero, E., Borgonovi, E., & Farr-Wharton, B. (2014). Leader-member exchange, affective commitment, engagement, wellbeing, and intention to leave: Public versus private sector Italian nurses. Public Money and Management, 34(6), 381–388. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540962.2014.962361

Vijayakumari, K. *, & Vrinda. (2016). Work engagement in relation to psychological well-being and motivation at work. Guru Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 4(3–4), 589–594. Retrieved from www.gjbss.org

Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (2007). Job satisfaction and psychological well-being as nonadditive predictors of workplace turnover. Journal of Management, 33(2), 141–160. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206306297582

Wulandari, S. M., & Ratnaningsih, I. Z. (2016). Hubungan antara Leader Member Exchange (LMX) dengan work engagement pada perawat instalasi rawat inap di RSJD Dr. Amino Gondohutomo Semarang. Jurnal Empati, 5(4), 721–726. Retrieved from https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/empati/article/view/15452

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21580/pjpp.v4i1.3360


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi
Program Studi Psikologi, Fakultas Psikologi dan Kesehatan (FPK)
Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang
Prof. Dr. HAMKA St., KM 2nd. Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia