Grammatical Intricacy on Students’ Writing

Nadiah Ma'mun


Grammatical intricacy refers to how often a clause complex in a text in comparison with simple clauses. It is accepted that any text has a different level of intricacy (complexity). This is all related to how much information is introduced in a clause complex which can contain more than one simple clause. Classification of clauses (sentences) applies to the determination of grammatical intricacy (complexity) of a text. If in a text there are more clause complexes than simple clauses, it can be said that the text is more complex in the sense that it presents more information in a condensed way. Consequently, learners are potential to encounter problems. The concept of this article only focuses on the paratactic clause, hypotactic clause construction and the combination among clause constructions used by students.


Grammatical intricacy; clause complex; and students writing

Full Text:



Alice Ochima, Introduction to Academic Writing, (NewYork: Addison Wesley Longman, 1997), second Ed.

Azar, Betty Schranpfer. (1989). Understanding and Using English Grammar. Jersey New. Prentice-Hall Inc.

Eggins, Suzanne. An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics, second edition. London: Pinter, 2004.

Ellis, Rod. (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press, New York

Ellis, Rod and Barkhuizen Gary. (2008). Analyzing Learner Language. Oxford University Press. China.

Emi Emilia. Introducing Functional Grammar. Pustaka Jaya: Bandung. 2014.

Gerot, Linda and Peter Wignell. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Sydney: Tanya, 1995.

Halliday, Michael A. K., and Christian M. An Introduction to Functional Grammar, third edition. London: Edward Arnold, 2004.

Halliday, Michael A. K. On Grammar. London: Continuum, 2002.

Halliday, Michael A. K. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Sydney: Tanya, 1995.

Halliday, Michael A. K. Spoken and Written Language. Geelong: Deakin University Press, 1985.

Hewings, Martin. (2002). Advanced Grammar in Use. Cambridge University

Press. Cambridge

Hubbard, Petter. (1983). A Training Course for TEFL. Oxford University Press. Newyork.

Martin, Christian and Clare Painter. Working with Functional Grammar. Landon: Arnold. 1997.

Nirmala, Deli. (2009). KesalahanGramaticalAbstrakTesis. Issued in kajian Sastra Journal.

Subroto, D.E. (1992), PengantarMetodePenelitianLingusitik. Surakarta: UMS Press.

Sudaryanto. Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa, PengantarPenelitianWahanaKebudayaansecara Linguistics. Sanata Dharma University Press: Yoyakarta. 2015.

Sunardi. Lexical Density and Grammatical Intricacy of English Academic Writings Written by Native Speaker and Non-Native Speaker. Journal of UDINUS, Volume 10, No.3 September 2010.

Swan, Michael. (1995). Practical English Usage. Oxford University Press: England.

Thompson, Geoff. Introducing Functional Grammar. Arnold: London. 1996.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Vision: Journal for Language and Foreign Language Learning

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


View My Stats